Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

References

Key articles

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761. Abstract

Saad M, Omrani AS, Baig K, et al. Clinical aspects and outcomes of 70 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a single-center experience in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;29:301-6.Full text  Abstract

Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A, et al. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:49-55.Full text  Abstract

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is suspected. Interim guidance. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Cevik M, Tate M, Lloyd O, et al. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding, and infectiousness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Microbe. 2021 Jan;2(1):e13-e22.Full text  Abstract

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761. Abstract

Arabi YM, Balkhy HH, Hayden FG, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 9;376(6):584-94.Full text  Abstract

Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, et al. Interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir for Middle East respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 22;383(17):1645-56.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Raj VS, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA, et al. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;5:58-62.Full text  Abstract

3. Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28:465-522. Abstract

4. WHO MERS-CoV Research Group. State of knowledge and data gaps of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans. PLoS Curr. 2013;5.Full text  Abstract

5. Shalhoub S, Farahat F, Al-Jiffri A, et al. IFN-alpha-2a or IFN-beta-1a in combination with ribavirin to treat Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus pneumonia: a retrospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70:2129-32. Abstract

6. Oboho IK, Tomczyk SM, Al-Asmari AM, et al. 2014 MERS-CoV outbreak in Jeddah - a link to health care facilities. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:846-854.Full text  Abstract

7. Assiri A, McGeer A, Perl TM, et al. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:407-416.Full text  Abstract

8. Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761. Abstract

9. Al-Tawfiq JA, Hinedi K, Ghandour J, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a case-control study of hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:160-165.Full text  Abstract

10. Saad M, Omrani AS, Baig K, et al. Clinical aspects and outcomes of 70 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a single-center experience in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;29:301-6.Full text  Abstract

11. Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Assiri A. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections in health care workers. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:884-886.Full text  Abstract

12. Amer H, Alqahtani AS, Alzoman H, et al. Unusual presentation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus leading to a large outbreak in Riyadh during 2017. Am J Infect Control. 2018 Apr 13. pii: S0196-6553(18)30146-9. Abstract

13. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Assiri A, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:904-906. Abstract

14. Khuri-Bulos N, Payne DC, Lu X, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:678-682.Full text  Abstract

15. Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, et al. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1814-1820.Full text  Abstract

16. Puzelli S, Azzi A, Santini MG, et al. Investigation of an imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Florence, Italy, May to June 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20564.Full text  Abstract

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18. Guery B, Poissy J, el Mansouf L, et al. Clinical features and viral diagnosis of two cases of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus: a report of nosocomial transmission. Lancet. 2013;381:2265-2272. Abstract

19. Abroug F, Slim A, Ouanes-Besbes L, et al. Family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections, Tunisia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1527-1530. Abstract

20. Lee SI. Costly lessons from the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48:274-276.Full text  Abstract

21. Hui DS, Perlman S, Zumla A. Spread of MERS to South Korea and China. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3:509-510. Abstract

22. Ha KM. A lesson learned from the MERS outbreak in South Korea in 2015. J Hosp Infect. 2016;92:232-234. Abstract

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27. Omrani AS, Saad MM, Baig K, et al. Ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:1090-5. Abstract

28. World Health Organization. MERS situation update. August 2018 [internet publication].Full text

29. Alenazi TH, Al Arbash H, El-Saed A, et al. Identified transmission dynamics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection during an outbreak: implications of an overcrowded emergency department. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65:675-679. Abstract

30. Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Al-Hakeem RF, et al. Family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:2487-2494.Full text  Abstract

31. Omrani AS, Matin MA, Haddad Q, et al. A family cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus infections related to a likely unrecognized asymptomatic or mild case. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e668-e672.Full text  Abstract

32. Omrani AS, Matin MA, Haddad Q, et al. A family cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus infections related to a likely unrecognized asymptomatic or mild case. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e668-e672.Full text  Abstract

33. Memish ZA, Cotten M, Watson SJ, et al. Community case clusters of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;23:63-68.Full text  Abstract

34. Al-Abdallat MM, Payne DC, Alqasrawi S, et al. Hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a serologic, epidemiologic, and clinical description. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1225-1233.Full text  Abstract

35. Shehata MM, Gomaa MR, Ali MA, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review. Front Med. 2016;10:120-36. Abstract

36. van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, et al. Genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. MBio. 2012;3:e00473-12.Full text  Abstract

37. Raj VS, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA, et al. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;5:58-62.Full text  Abstract

38. Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28:465-522. Abstract

39. Cotten M, Watson SJ, Zumla AI, et al. Spread, circulation, and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. MBio. 2014;5:e01062-13.Full text  Abstract

40. Omrani AS, Shalhoub S. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): what lessons can we learn? J Hosp Infect. 2015;91:188-196. Abstract

41. Omrani AS, Al-Tawfiq JA, Memish ZA. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction. Pathog Glob Health. 2015;109(8):354-62.Full text  Abstract

42. Alagaili AN, Briese T, Mishra N, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio. 2014;5:e00884-14.Full text  Abstract

43. Yusof MF, Eltahir YM, Serhan WS, et al. Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. Virus Genes. 2015;50:509-513. Abstract

44. Farag EA, Reusken CB, Haagmans BL, et al. High proportion of MERS-CoV shedding dromedaries at slaughterhouse with a potential epidemiological link to human cases, Qatar 2014. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015;5:28305.Full text  Abstract

45. Briese T, Mishra N, Jain K, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus quasispecies that include homologues of human isolates revealed through whole-genome analysis and virus cultured from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio. 2014;5:e01146-14.Full text  Abstract

46. Adney DR, van Doremalen N, Brown VR, et al. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in upper respiratory tract of inoculated dromedary camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1999-2005.Full text  Abstract

47. Anthony SJ, Gilardi K, Menachery VD, et al. Further evidence for bats as the evolutionary source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. MBio. 2017;8:e00373-17.Full text  Abstract

48. Haagmans BL, Al Dhahiry SH, Reusken CB, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:140-145. Abstract

49. Al Hammadi AM, Chu DKW, Eltahir YM, et al. Asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection in humans possibly linked to infected dromedaries imported from Oman to United Arab Emirates, May 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2197-2200.Full text  Abstract

50. Memish ZA, Cotten M, Meyer B, et al. Human infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1012-1015.Full text  Abstract

51. Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, et al. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2499-2505.Full text  Abstract

52. Hemida MG, Al-Naeem A, Perera RA, et al. Lack of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission from infected camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:699-701.Full text  Abstract

53. Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A, et al. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:49-55.Full text  Abstract

54. Kim SH, Chang SY, Sung M, et al. Extensive viable Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus contamination in air and surrounding environment in MERS isolation wards. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:363-369.Full text  Abstract

55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). MERS clinical features. Aug 2020 [internet publication].Full text

56. Park HY, Lee EJ, Ryu YW, et al. Epidemiological investigation of MERS-CoV spread in a single hospital in South Korea, May to June 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:21169.Full text  Abstract

57. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Munster VJ. Stability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) under different environmental conditions. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20590.Full text  Abstract

58. Bin SY, Heo JY, Song MS, et al. Environmental contamination and viral shedding in MERS patients during MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:755-760. Abstract

59. Cauchemez S, Van Kerkhove MD, Riley S, et al. Transmission scenarios for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and how to tell them apart. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20503.Full text  Abstract

60. Cauchemez S, Fraser C, Van Kerkhove MD, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: quantification of the extent of the epidemic, surveillance biases, and transmissibility. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:50-56.Full text  Abstract

61. Breban R, Riou J, Fontanet A. Interhuman transmissibility of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: estimation of pandemic risk. Lancet. 2013;382:694-699. Abstract

62. Zumla A, Hui DS. Infection control and MERS-CoV in health-care workers. Lancet. 2014;383:1869-1871. Abstract

63. Raj VS, Mou H, Smits SL, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC. Nature. 2013;495:251-254. Abstract

64. Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, et al. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses. 2012;4:1011-1033.Full text  Abstract

65. Xia S, Liu Q, Wang Q, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) entry inhibitors targeting spike protein. Virus Res. 2014;194:200-210. Abstract

66. Bosch BJ, Raj VS, Haagmans BL. Spiking the MERS-coronavirus receptor. Cell Res. 2013;23:1069-1070.Full text  Abstract

67. Zumla A, Hui DS, Perlman S. Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2015;386:995-1007.Full text  Abstract

68. Reuss A, Litterst A, Drosten C, et al. Contact investigation for imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:620-625.Full text  Abstract

69. Bialek SR, Allen D, Alvarado-Ramy F, et al. First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities - May 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:431-6.Full text  Abstract

70. Beigel JH, Voell J, Kumar P, et al. Safety and tolerability of a novel, polyclonal human anti-MERS coronavirus antibody produced from transchromosomic cattle: a phase 1 randomised, double-blind, single-dose-escalation study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Apr;18(4):410-418. Abstract

71. World Health Organization. WHO target product profiles for MERS-CoV vaccines. May 2017 [internet publication].Full text

72. World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control during health care for probable or confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (‎MERS-CoV)‎ infection. Interim guidance. Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

73. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Preventing MERS-CoV from spreading to others in homes and communities. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

74. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim infection prevention and control recommendations for hospitalized patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

75. Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME, Tseng C-T, et al. Calling for rapid development of a safe and effective MERS vaccine. Microbes Infect. 2014;16:529-531. Abstract

76. Arabi YM, Arifi AA, Balkhy HH, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:389-397.Full text  Abstract

77. Shalhoub S, Al-Zahrani A, Simhairi R, et al. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. J Clin Virol. 2015;62:69-71. Abstract

78. Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; guidelines for healthcare professionals, version 5.1. May 2018 [internet publication].Full text

79. World Health Organization (WHO). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: case definition for reporting to WHO. July 2017 [internet publication].Full text

80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim patient under investigation (PUI) guidance and case definitions. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

81. World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is suspected. Interim guidance. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

82. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Makhdoom HQ, et al. Respiratory tract samples, viral load, and genome fraction yield in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:1590-1594.Full text  Abstract

83. Cevik M, Tate M, Lloyd O, et al. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding, and infectiousness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Microbe. 2021 Jan;2(1):e13-e22.Full text  Abstract

84. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Interim guidance (revised). January 2018 [internet publication].Full text

85. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC laboratory testing for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

86. Corman VM, Muller MA, Costabel U, et al. Assays for laboratory confirmation of novel human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) infections. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:20334.Full text  Abstract

87. Ajlan AM, Ahyad RA, Jamjoom LG, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: chest CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203:782-787.Full text  Abstract

88. Guery B, Poissy J, el Mansouf L, et al. Clinical features and viral diagnosis of two cases of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus: a report of nosocomial transmission. Lancet. 2013;381:2265-2272. Abstract

89. Lee SI. Costly lessons from the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48:274-276.Full text  Abstract

90. Reuss A, Litterst A, Drosten C, et al. Contact investigation for imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:620-625.Full text  Abstract

91. Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:752-761. Abstract

92. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Assiri A, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:904-906. Abstract

93. Khuri-Bulos N, Payne DC, Lu X, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:678-682.Full text  Abstract

94. Assiri A, McGeer A, Perl TM, et al. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:407-416.Full text  Abstract

95. Al-Tawfiq JA, Hinedi K, Ghandour J, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a case-control study of hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:160-165.Full text  Abstract

96. Shalhoub S, Al-Zahrani A, Simhairi R, et al. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. J Clin Virol. 2015;62:69-71. Abstract

97. Oboho IK, Tomczyk SM, Al-Asmari AM, et al. 2014 MERS-CoV outbreak in Jeddah - a link to health care facilities. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:846-854.Full text  Abstract

98. Corman VM, Eckerle I, Bleicker T, et al. Detection of a novel human coronavirus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:20285.Full text  Abstract

99. Hui DS, Memish ZA, Zumla A. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vs. the Middle East respiratory syndrome. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014;20:233-241. Abstract

100. Christian MD, Poutanen SM, Loutfy MR, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1420-1427.Full text  Abstract

101. Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Makhdoom HQ, et al. Screening for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in hospital patients and their healthcare worker and family contacts: a prospective descriptive study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:469-474.Full text  Abstract

102. Drosten C, Meyer B, Muller MA, et al. Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:828-835.Full text  Abstract

103. Raoult D, Charrel R, Gautret P, et al. From the Hajj: it's the flu, idiot. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:O1. Abstract

104. Memish ZA, Assiri A, Almasri M, et al. Prevalence of MERS-CoV nasal carriage and compliance with the Saudi health recommendations among pilgrims attending the 2013 Hajj. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:1067-1072.Full text  Abstract

105. Gautret P, Charrel R, Benkouiten S, et al. Lack of MERS coronavirus but prevalence of influenza virus in French pilgrims after 2013 Hajj. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:728-730.Full text  Abstract

106. Gautret P, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, et al. Lack of nasal carriage of novel corona virus (HCoV-EMC) in French Hajj pilgrims returning from the Hajj 2012, despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:E315-E317.Full text  Abstract

107. Benkouiten S, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, et al. Circulation of respiratory viruses among pilgrims during the 2012 Hajj pilgrimage. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:992-1000.Full text  Abstract

108. Annan A, Owusu M, Marfo KS, et al. High prevalence of common respiratory viruses and no evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hajj pilgrims returning to Ghana, 2013. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20:807-812. Abstract

109. World Health Organization. Management of asymptomatic persons who are RT-PCR positive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Interim guidance. January 2018 [internet publication].Full text

110. Al-Hameed F, Wahla AS, Siddiqui S, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Intensive Care Med. 2016;31:344-348. Abstract

111. Alshahrani MS, Sindi A, Alshamsi F, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Ann Intensive Care. 2018 Jan 10;8(1):3.Full text  Abstract

112. Arabi YM, Mandourah Y, Al-Hameed F, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 15;197(6):757-767. Abstract

113. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing MERS-CoV from spreading to others in homes and communities. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

114. World Health Organization. Home care for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection presenting with mild symptoms and management of contacts. Interim guidance. June 2018 [internet publication].Full text

115. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Implementing home care and isolation or quarantine of people not requiring hospitalization for MERS-CoV. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

116. Arabi YM, Balkhy HH, Hayden FG, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 9;376(6):584-94.Full text  Abstract

117. Arabi YM, Shalhoub S, Mandourah Y, et al. Ribavirin and interferon therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome: a multicenter observational study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 15;70(9):1837-44.Full text  Abstract

118. Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, et al. Interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir for Middle East respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 22;383(17):1645-56.Full text  Abstract

119. Arabi YM, Deeb AM, Al-Hameed F, et al. Macrolides in critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome. Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr;81:184-90.Full text  Abstract

120. Chan JF, Chan KH, Kao RY, et al. Broad-spectrum antivirals for the emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Infect. 2013;67:606-616. Abstract

121. Falzarano D, de Wit E, Martellaro C, et al. Inhibition of novel beta coronavirus replication by a combination of interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1686.Full text  Abstract

122. Falzarano D, de Wit E, Rasmussen AL, et al. Treatment with interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin improves outcome in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus macaques. Nat Med. 2013;19:1313-1317.Full text  Abstract

123. Al-Tawfiq JA, Momattin H, Dib J, et al. Ribavirin and interferon therapy in patients infected with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: an observational study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;20:42-46.Full text  Abstract

124. Khalid M, Al Rabiah F, Khan B, et al. Ribavirin and interferon (IFN)-alpha-2b as primary and preventive treatment for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a preliminary report of two cases. Antivir Ther. 2015;20:87-91. Abstract

125. Al-Ghamdi M, Mushtaq F, Awn N, et al. MERS CoV infection in two renal transplant recipients: case report. Am J Transplant. 2015;15:1101-1104. Abstract

126. Li HS, Kuok DIT, Cheung MC, et al. Effect of interferon alpha and cyclosporine treatment separately and in combination on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication in a human in-vitro and ex-vivo culture model. Antiviral Res. 2018 Jul;155:89-96.Full text  Abstract

127. Hart BJ, Dyall J, Postnikova E, et al. Interferon-beta and mycophenolic acid are potent inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in cell-based assays. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:571-577.Full text  Abstract

128. Chu CM, Cheng VC, Hung IF, et al. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax. 2004;59:252-256.Full text  Abstract

129. Chan JF, Yao Y, Yeung ML, et al. Treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir or interferon-beta1b improves outcome of MERS-CoV infection in a nonhuman primate model of common marmoset. J Infect Dis. 2015;212:1904-1913. Abstract

130. Spanakis N, Tsiodras S, Haagmans BL, et al. Virological and serological analysis of a recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection case on a triple combination antiviral regimen. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;44:528-532. Abstract

131. de Wilde AH, Raj VS, Oudshoorn D, et al. MERS-coronavirus replication induces severe in vitro cytopathology and is strongly inhibited by cyclosporin A or interferon-alpha treatment. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1749-1760.Full text  Abstract

132. Pan Q, de Ruiter PE, Metselaar HJ, et al. Mycophenolic acid augments interferon-stimulated gene expression and inhibits hepatitis C Virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Hepatology. 2012;55:1673-1683. Abstract

133. Cheng KW, Cheng SC, Chen WY, et al. Thiopurine analogs and mycophenolic acid synergistically inhibit the papain-like protease of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Antiviral Res. 2015;115:9-16. Abstract

134. Mailles A, Blanckaert K, Chaud P, et al. First cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in France, investigations and implications for the prevention of human-to-human transmission, France, May 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20502.Full text  Abstract

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