Hepatitis C

References

Key articles

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. Oct 2021 [internet publication].Full text

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. October 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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7. World Health Organization. Fact sheets: hepatitis C. Jun 2022 [internet publication].Full text

8. Alberts CJ, Clifford GM, Georges D, et al. Worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with cirrhosis at country, region, and global levels: a systematic review. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Aug;7(8):724-35.Full text  Abstract

9. Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, et al. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2015 Jan;61(1):77-87.Full text  Abstract

10. Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, et al. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov;61(1 Suppl):S45-57.Full text  Abstract

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12. Ryerson AB, Schillie S, Barker LK, et al. Vital signs: newly reported acute and chronic hepatitis C cases - United States, 2009-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 10;69(14):399-404.Full text  Abstract

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis surveillance report 2019: hepatitis C. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

14. UK Health Security Agency. Hepatitis C in England and the UK. Mar 2022 [internet publication].Full text

15. World Health Organization. Hepatitis C - global prevalence (update). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1999 Dec 10;74(49):425-7.Full text  Abstract

16. Mahowald MK, Larney S, Zaller ND, et al. Characterizing the burden of hepatitis C infection among entrants to Pennsylvania state prisons, 2004 to 2012. J Correct Health Care. 2016 Jan;22(1):41-5.Full text  Abstract

17. Jin F, Dore GJ, Matthews G, et al. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Jan;6(1):39-56. Abstract

18. Ly KN, Jiles RB, Teshale EH, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection among reproductive-aged women and children in the United States, 2006 to 2014. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jun 6;166(11):775-82. Abstract

19. Dugan E, Blach S, Biondi M, et al. Global prevalence of hepatitis C virus in women of childbearing age in 2019: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Mar;6(3):169-84.Full text  Abstract

20. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report, 2017. Apr 2017 [internet publication].Full text

21. Wasley A, Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C: geographic differences and temporal trends. Semin Liver Dis. 2000;20(1):1-16. Abstract

22. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report, 2017. April 2017 [internet publication].Full text

23. Alter MJ. Prevention of spread of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002 Nov;36(5 Suppl 1):S93-8. Abstract

24. Garcia-Tejedor A, Maiques-Montesinos V, Diago-Almela VJ, et al. Risk factors for vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: a single center experience with 710 HCV-infected mothers. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Nov;194:173-7. Abstract

25. Indolfi G, Nesi A, Resti M. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Med Virol. 2013 Apr;85(4):608-14. Abstract

26. Gerlach JT, Diepolder HM, Zachoval R. Acute hepatitis C: high rate of both spontaneous and treatment-induced viral clearance. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jul;125(1):80-8. Abstract

27. Pawlotsky JM. Pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease. Trends Microbiol. 2004 Feb;12(2):96-102. Abstract

28. Smith JA, Aberle JH, Fleming VM, et al. Dynamic coinfection with multiple viral subtypes in acute hepatitis C. J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1770-9.Full text  Abstract

29. World Health Organization. WHO best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit. Mar 2010 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

30. Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Galai N, et al. Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. Am J Public Health. 1996 May;86(5):655-61.Full text  Abstract

31. Platt L, Minozzi S, Reed J, et al. Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 18;(9):CD012021.Full text  Abstract

32. Pomper GJ, Wu Y, Snyder EL. Risks of transfusion-transmitted infections: 2003. Curr Opin Hematol. 2003 Nov;10(6):412-8. Abstract

33. Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):798-801. Abstract

34. Pearlman BL. Hepatitis C virus infection in African Americans. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 1;42(1):82-91. Abstract

35. Aisyah DN, Shallcross L, Hully AJ, et al. Assessing hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and understanding associated factors - a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2018 Jun;25(6):680-98. Abstract

36. Jin F, Matthews GV, Grulich AE. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among gay and bisexual men: a systematic review. Sex Health. 2017 Feb;14(1):28-41. Abstract

37. Ahmadi Gharaei H, Fararouei M, Mirzazadeh A, et al. The global and regional prevalence of hepatitis C and B co-infections among prisoners living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Jul 1;10(1):93.Full text  Abstract

38. Finelli L, Miller JT, Tokars JI, et al. National surveillance of dialysis-associated diseases in the United States, 2002. Semin Dial. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):52-61. Abstract

39. Fabrizi F, Messa P. Transmission of hepatitis C virus in dialysis units: a systematic review of reports on outbreaks. Int J Artif Organs. 2015 Sep;38(9):471-80. Abstract

40. Puro V, Petrosillo N, Ippolito G; Italian Study Group on Occupational Risk of HIV and Other Bloodborne Infections. Risk of hepatitis C seroconversion after occupational exposures in health care workers. Am J Infect Control. 1995 Oct;23(5):273-7. Abstract

41. Jafari S, Copes R, Baharlou S, et al. Tattooing and the risk of transmission of hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov;14(11):e928-40. Abstract

42. Yang S, Wang D, Zhang Y, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B and C virus infection through body piercing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(47):e1893.Full text  Abstract

43. Stroffolini T, Lorenzoni U, Menniti-Ippolito F, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses: sexual transmission or common exposure to the same risk factors? Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Nov;96(11):3138-41. Abstract

44. Terrault NA, Dodge JL, Murphy EL, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: the HCV partners study. Hepatology. 2013 Mar;57(3):881-9.Full text  Abstract

45. Yeung LT, King SM, Roberts EA. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology. 2001 Aug;34(2):223-9. Abstract

46. Seeff LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 1997 Sep;26(3 Suppl 1):21-8S. Abstract

47. Udomsinprasert W, Jittikoon J, Sukkho S, et al. Decreased circulating vitamin D reflects adverse outcomes of hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020 Oct;81(4):585-99. Abstract

48. Hagan H, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, et al. Reduced risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among injection drug users in the Tacoma Syringe Exchange Program. Am J Public Health. 1995 Nov;85(11):1531-7.Full text  Abstract

49. Villano SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, et al. Persistence of viremia and the importance of long-term follow-up after acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatology. 1999 Mar;29(3):908-14. Abstract

50. Alter HJ, Seeff LB. Recovery, persistence, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: a perspective on long-term outcome. Semin Liver Dis. 2000;20:17-35. Abstract

51. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: management of hepatitis C: 2002 - June 10-12, 2002. Hepatology. 2002 Nov;36(5 Suppl 1):S3-20. Abstract

52. Hézode C, Zafrani ES, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Daily cannabis use: a novel risk factor of steatosis severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2008 Feb;134(2):432-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Ishida JH, Peters MG, Jin C, et al. Influence of cannabis use on severity of hepatitis C disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Jan;6(1):69-75.Full text  Abstract

54. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. Oct 2021 [internet publication].Full text

55. World Health Organization. Updated recommendations on simplified service delivery and diagnostics for hepatitis C infection. Jun 2022 [internet publication].Full text

56. World Health Organization. Recommendations and guidance on hepatitis C virus self-testing. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

57. Shaheen AA, Wan AF, Myers RP. FibroTest and FibroScan for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: a systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov;102(11):2589-600. Abstract

58. Calvaruso V, Cammà C, Di Marco V, et al. Fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis C: analysis of discordance between transient elastography and liver biopsy. J Viral Hepat. 2010 Jul;17(7):469-74. Abstract

59. Flores GL, Mota JC, da Silva Andrade LT, et al. Performance of HCV antigen testing for the diagnosis and monitoring of antiviral treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2022 Jan 4;2022:7348755.Full text  Abstract

60. World Health Organization. WHO best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit. March 2010 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

61. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. The OraQuick HCV point‑of‑care test for rapid detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies. Mar 2015 [internet publication].Full text

62. Ying HY, Lu LG, Jing DD, et al. Accuracy of transient elastography in the assessment of chronic hepatitis C-related liver cirrhosis. Clin Invest Med. 2016 Oct 14;39(5):E150-60. Abstract

63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C, acute 2020 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

64. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C, chronic 2020 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

65. Public Health England. Public Health England encourages hepatitis C testing. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

66. Galbraith JW, Anderson ES, Hsieh YH, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection among adult patients at four urban emergency departments - Birmingham, Oakland, Baltimore, and Boston, 2015-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 May 15;69(19):569-74.Full text  Abstract

67. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adolescents and adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2020 Mar 2;323(10):970-5.Full text  Abstract

68. Schillie S, Wester C, Osborne M, et al. CDC recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults - United States, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020 Apr 10;69(2):1-17.Full text  Abstract

69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening for viral hepatitis during the domestic medical examination of newly arrived refugees. Oct 2020 [internet publication].Full text

70. Marks K, Naggie S. Management of hepatitis C in 2019. JAMA. 2019 May 17;322(4):355-6. Abstract

71. Jakobsen JC, Nielsen EE, Feinberg J, et al. Direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 18;(9):CD012143.Full text  Abstract

72. Powderly WG, Naggie S, Kim AY, et al. IDSA/AASLD response to Cochrane review on direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 1;65(11):1773-5.Full text  Abstract

73. European Association for the Study of the Liver. Response to the Cochrane systematic review on DAA-based treatment of chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2017 Oct;67(4):663-4.Full text  Abstract

74. Jakobsen JC, Nielsen EE, Koretz RL, et al. Do direct acting antivirals cure chronic hepatitis C? BMJ. 2018 May 10;361:k1382. Abstract

75. Carrat F, Fontaine H, Dorival C, et al; French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort. Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C after direct-acting antiviral treatment: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2019 Feb 11;393(10179):1453-64. Abstract

76. Mendizabal M, Piñero F, Ridruejo E, et al. Disease progression in patients with hepatitis C virus infection treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Oct;18(11):2554-63.e3. Abstract

77. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about the risk of hepatitis B reactivating in some patients treated with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. Oct 2016 [internet publication].Full text

78. Falade-Nwulia O, Suarez-Cuervo C, Nelson DR, et al. Oral direct-acting agent therapy for hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2017 May 2;166(9):637-48.Full text  Abstract

79. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns of serious liver injury risk with hepatitis C treatments Viekira Pak and Technivie. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

80. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about rare occurrence of serious liver injury with use of hepatitis C medicines Mavyret, Zepatier, and Vosevi in some patients with advanced liver disease. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

81. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. October 2021 [internet publication].Full text

82. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns of serious liver injury risk with hepatitis C treatments Viekira Pak and Technivie. October 2015 [internet publication].Full text

83. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about rare occurrence of serious liver injury with use of hepatitis C medicines Mavyret, Zepatier, and Vosevi in some patients with advanced liver disease. August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

84. Abutaleb A, Kottilil S. Vedroprevir in the management of hepatitis C virus infection. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017 Dec;26(12):1399-402.Full text  Abstract

85. Ahmed AM, Doheim MF, Mattar OM, et al. Beclabuvir in combination with asunaprevir and daclatasvir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2018 May;90(5):907-18. Abstract

86. Meshram RJ, Kathwate GH, Gacche RN. Progress, evolving therapeutic/diagnostic approaches, and challenges in the management of hepatitis C virus infections. Arch Virol. 2022 Mar;167(3):717-36.Full text  Abstract

87. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National progress report 2025 goal: reduce reported rate of hepatitis C-related deaths by ≥20%. Jun 2021 [internet publication].Full text

88. Fattovich G, Guistina G, Degos F, et al. Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology. 1997 Feb;112(2):463-72. Abstract

89. Niederau C, Lange S, Heintges T, et al. Prognosis of chronic hepatitis C: results of a large, prospective cohort study. Hepatology. 1998 Dec;28(6):1687-95. Abstract

90. Planas R, Balleste B, Alvarez MA, et al. Natural history of decompensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis: a study of 200 patients. J Hepatol. 2004 May;40(5):823-30. Abstract

91. Jacobson IM, Lim JK, Fried MW. American Gastroenterological Association Institute clinical practice update - expert review: care of patients who have achieved a sustained virologic response after antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology. 2017 May;152(6):1578-87.Full text  Abstract

92. Bruno S, Zuin M, Crosignani A, et al. Predicting mortality risk in patients with compensated HCV-induced cirrhosis: a long-term prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 May;104(5):1147-58. Abstract

93. Kanwal F, Kramer JR, Ilyas J, et al. HCV genotype 3 is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in a national sample of US veterans with HCV. Hepatology. 2014 Jul;60(1):98-105. Abstract

94. Innes H, McAuley A, Alavi M, et al. The contribution of health risk behaviours to excess mortality in American adults with chronic hepatitis C: a population cohort-study. Hepatology. 2018 Jan;67(1):97-107. Abstract

95. European Medicines Agency. PRAC warns of risk of hepatitis B re-activation with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. Dec 2016 [internet publication].Full text

96. Mücke MM, Backus LI, Mücke VT, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation during direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Mar;3(3):172-80. Abstract

97. Wiznia LE, Laird ME, Franks AG Jr. Hepatitis C virus and its cutaneous manifestations: treatment in the direct-acting antiviral era. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017 Aug;31(8):1260-70. Abstract

98. Alaizari NA, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Shamiri HM, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections in oral lichen planus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aust Dent J. 2016 Sep;61(3):282-7.Full text  Abstract

99. Ferri C, Zignego AL, Pileri SA. Cryoglobulins. J Clin Pathol. 2002 Jan;55(1):4-13. Abstract

100. Montero N, Favà A, Rodriguez E, et al. Treatment for hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 7;(5):CD011403.Full text  Abstract

101. Johnson RJ, Gretch DR, Yamabe H, et al. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 18;328(7):465-70.Full text  Abstract

102. Wilson SE, Lee WM, Murakami C, et al. Mooren-type hepatitis C virus-associated corneal ulceration. Ophthalmology. 1994 Apr;101(4):736-45. Abstract

103. Hu KQ, Tong MJ. The long-term outcomes of patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and history of parenteral exposure in the United States. Hepatology. 1999 Apr;29(4):1311-6. Abstract

104. Colombo M. Hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 1999;19(3):263-9. Abstract

105. El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11;340(10):745-50. Abstract

106. Li X, Sheng L, Liu L, et al. Statin and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2020 Apr 9;20(1):98.Full text  Abstract

107. Li Z, Li Y, Li X, et al. Statins in hepatitis B or C patients is associated with reduced hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2022 Feb;33(2):136-44.Full text  Abstract

108. Zheng YX, Zhou PC, Zhou RR, et al. The benefit of statins in chronic hepatitis C patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jul;29(7):759-66. Abstract

109. Lee KK, Stelzle D, Bing R, et al. Global burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in people with hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Oct;4(10):794-804.Full text  Abstract

110. Ambrosino P, Lupoli R, Di Minno A, et al. The risk of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease in patients with hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Oct 15;221:746-54. Abstract

111. Wen D, Du X, Dong JZ, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Eur J Intern Med. 2019 May;63:69-73. Abstract

112. Lapumnuaypol K, Thongprayoon C, Wijarnpreecha K, et al. Impact of hepatitis C sustained viral response on cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis. Hosp Pract (1995). 2019 Aug;47(3):105-10. Abstract

113. Molina-Cuadrado E, Mateo-Carrasco H, Collado A, et al. Anaemia predictors in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with ribavirin and direct-acting antiviral agents. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2018 May;25(3):132-7.Full text  Abstract

114. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C: risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

115. Pessione F, Degos F, Marcellin P, et al. Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C RNA and histological lesions in chronic HCV. Hepatology. 1998 Jun;27(6):1717-22. Abstract

116. Llamosas-Falcón L, Shield KD, Gelovany M, et al. Impact of alcohol on the progression of HCV-related liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2021 Sep;75(3):536-46. Abstract

117. Llamosas-Falcón L, Shield KD, Gelovany M, et al. Alcohol use disorders and the risk of progression of liver disease in people with hepatitis C virus infection - a systematic review. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2020 Jun 30;15(1):45.Full text  Abstract

118. Terrault NA. Sexual activity as a risk factor for HCV infection. Hepatology. 2002 Nov;36(5 Suppl 1):S99-105. Abstract

119. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998 Oct 16;47(RR-19):1-39.Full text  Abstract

120. Tohme RA, Holmberg SD. Is sexual contact a major mode of hepatitis C virus transmission? Hepatology. 2010 Oct;52(4):1497-505. Abstract

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