Last reviewed: February 2020
Last updated: October  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • asymptomatic
  • cervical bruit
  • focal neurological deficit lasting >24 hours (i.e., stroke)
  • focal neurological deficit lasting <24 hours (i.e., transient ischaemic attack [TIA])

Risk factors

  • older age
  • history of hypertension
  • smoking
  • history of cardiovascular disease
  • history of hypercholesterolaemia

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • duplex ultrasonography
  • computed tomography angiography (CTA) of head, neck, and chest
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of head, neck, and chest
  • cervical angiography
  • CT brain
  • MRI brain
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Professor of Stroke Medicine

UCL Stroke Research Centre

Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation

UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology

University College London

London

Disclosures

MMB received a project grant from the Stroke Association to support the European Carotid Surgery Trial-2; he is also an author of references cited in this topic.

Professor Martin M. Brown would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Brajesh K. Lal, the previous contributor to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Stewart J. Greenebaum Endowed Professor of Stroke Neurology

Director, Comprehensive Stroke Program

Vice-Chair for Strategic Operations

Department of Neurology

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

SC declares that he is an executive committee member of the CREST-2 study. 

Professor and Chief

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

NYU Langone Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

MAA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Surgery and Radiology

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

JEI declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Surgical Education

Consultant Vascular Surgeon

Sheffield Vascular Institute

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

JDB declares that he is on the Steering Committee of ICSS and ECST-2 Trials.

Professor of Vascular Surgery

Vascular Surgery Group

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences

Leicester Royal Infirmary

UK

Disclosures

RN declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Vascular Surgery

Head, Department of Vascular Surgery

Athens Medical Center

Athens

Greece

Disclosures

CDL declares that he has no competing interests.

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