Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia


Key articles

Warkentin T, Kelton J. Temporal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1286-1292.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Warkentin T, Chong B, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: towards consensus. Thromb Haemost. 1998 Jan;79(1):1-7. Abstract

2. Warkentin TE. Fondaparinux: does it cause HIT? Can it treat HIT? Expert Rev Hematol. 2010 Oct;3(5):567-81. Abstract

3. Kang M, Alahmadi M, Sawh S, et al. Fondaparinux for the treatment of suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a propensity score-matched study. Blood. 2015 Feb 5;125(6):924-9. Abstract

4. Warkentin TE, Kelton JG. A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Med. 1996 Nov;101(5):502-7. Abstract

5. Warkentin T, Kelton J. Temporal aspects of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1286-1292.Full text  Abstract

6. Linkins LA, Warkentin T. The approach to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;29:66-74. Abstract

7. Warkentin T, Elavathil L, Hayward C, et al. The pathogenesis of venous limb gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Nov 1;127(9):804-12. Abstract

8. Farley S, Cummings C, Heuser W, et al. Prevalence and overtesting of true heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a 591-bed tertiary care, teaching hospital. J Intensive Care Med. 2019 Jun;34(6):464-71. Abstract

9. Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsh J, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. N Engl J Med. 1995 May 18;332(20):1330-5.Full text  Abstract

10. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Moore JC, et al. Laboratory testing for the antibodies that cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: how much class do we need? J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Dec;146(6):341-6. Abstract

11. Warkentin T, Sheppard J, Horsewood P, et al. Impact of the patient population on the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2000 Sep 1;96(5):1703-8. Abstract

12. Prandoni P, Siragusa S, Girolami B, et al. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in medical patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood. 2005 Nov 1;106(9):3049-54.Full text  Abstract

13. Lubenow N, Hinz P, Thomaschewski S, et al. The severity of trauma determines the immune response to PF4/heparin and the frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2010 Mar 4;115(9):1797-803.Full text  Abstract

14. Lindhoff-Last E, Nakov R, Misselwitz F, et al. Incidence and clinical relevance of heparin-induced antibodies in patients with deep vein thrombosis treated with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin. Br J Haematol. 2002 Sep;118(4):1137-42. Abstract

15. Martel N, Lee J, Wells PS. Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Blood. 2005 Oct 15;106(8):2710-5.Full text  Abstract

16. Junqueira DR, Zorzela LM, Perini E. Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparins for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 21;4:CD007557.Full text  Abstract

17. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Sigouin CS, et al. Gender imbalance and risk factor interactions in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2006 Nov 1;108(9):2937-41.Full text  Abstract

18. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Moore JC, et al. Studies of the immune response in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2009 May 14;113(20):4963-9.Full text  Abstract

19. Greinacher A, Kohlmann T, Strobel U, et al. The temporal profile of the anti-PF4/heparin immune response. Blood. 2009 May 14;113(20):4970-6.Full text  Abstract

20. Krauel K, Potschke C, Weber C, et al. Platelet factor 4 binds to bacteria, inducing antibodies cross-reacting with the major antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2011 Jan 27;117(4):1370-8.Full text  Abstract

21. Greinacher A, Holtfreter B, Krauel K, et al. Association of natural anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies with periodontal disease. Blood. 2011 Aug 4;118(5):1395-401.Full text  Abstract

22. Greinacher A, Alban S, Omer-Adam MA, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a stoichiometry-based model to explain the differing immunogenicities of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and fondaparinux in different clinical settings. Thromb Res. 2008;122(2):211-20. Abstract

23. Amiral J, Bridey F, Dreyfus M, et al. Platelet factor 4 complexed to heparin is the target for antibodies generated in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost. 1992;68:95-96. Abstract

24. Kelton JG, Smith JW, Warkentin TE, et al. Immunoglobulin G from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia binds to a complex of heparin and platelet factor 4. Blood. 1994;83:3232-3239.Full text  Abstract

25. Chong BH, Fawaz I, Chesterman CN, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: mechanism of interaction of the heparin-dependent antibody with platelets. Br J Haematol. 1989;73:235-240. Abstract

26. Warkentin TE, Sheppard JI. Generation of platelet-derived microparticles and procoagulant activity by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia IgG/serum and other IgG platelet agonists: a comparison with standard platelet agonists. Platelets. 1999;10:319-326. Abstract

27. Warkentin TE, Hayward CP, Boshkov LK, et al. Sera from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia generate platelet-derived microparticles with procoagulant activity: an explanation for the thrombotic complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 1994;84:3691-3699.Full text  Abstract

28. Visentin GP, Ford SE, Scott JP, et al. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:81-88.Full text  Abstract

29. Rauova L, Hirsch JD, Greene TK, et al. Monocyte-bound PF4 in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2010;116:5021-5031.Full text  Abstract

30. Cines DB, Tomaski A, Tannenbaum S. Immune endothelial-cell injury in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:581-589. Abstract

31. Warkentin T. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis and management. Br J Haematol. 2003;121:535-555. Abstract

32. Salter BS, Weiner MM, Trinh MA, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a comprehensive clinical review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 May 31;67(21):2519-32.Full text  Abstract

33. Rauova L, Poncz M, McKenzie SE, et al. Ultralarge complexes of PF4 and heparin are central to the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2005 Jan 1;105(1):131-8.Full text  Abstract

34. Greinacher A, Alban S, Dummel V, et al. Characterization of the structural requirements for a carbohydrate based anticoagulant with a reduced risk of inducing the immunological type of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Sep;74(3):886-92. Abstract

35. Lo G, Juhl D, Warkentin T, et al. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T’s) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings. J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Apr;4(4):759-65. Abstract

36. Warkentin TE, Heddle NM. Laboratory diagnosis of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Curr Hematol Rep. 2003 Mar;2(2):148-57. Abstract

37. Cuker A, Arepally GM, Chong BH, et al. American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood Adv. 2018 Nov 27;2(22):3360-92.Full text  Abstract

38. Cuker A, Gimotty PA, Crowther MA, et al. Predictive value of the 4Ts scoring system for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2012 Nov 15;120(20):4160-7.Full text  Abstract

39. Cuker A, Arepally G, Crowther MA, et al. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score: a novel pre-test probability model for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia based on broad expert opinion. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Dec;8(12):2642-50. Abstract

40. Warkentin TE. Anticoagulant failure in coagulopathic patients: PTT confounding and other pitfalls. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014 Jan;13(1):25-43. Abstract

41. Linkins LA, Bates SM, Lee AY, et al. Combination of 4Ts score and PF4/H-PaGIA for diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: prospective cohort study. Blood. 2015 Jul 30;126(5):597-603.Full text  Abstract

42. Nagler M, Bachmann LM, Ten Cate H, et al. Diagnostic value of immunoassays for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2016 Feb 4;127(5):546-57.Full text  Abstract

43. Sun L, Gimotty PA, Lakshmanan S, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid immunoassays for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost. 2016 May 2;115(5):1044-55. Abstract

44. Minet V, Dogné JM, Mullier F. Functional assays in the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a review. Molecules. 2017 Apr 11;22(4):E617.Full text  Abstract

45. Pouplard C, Amiral J, Borg JY, et al. Decision analysis for use of platelet aggregation test, carbon 14-serotonin release assay, and heparin-platelet factor 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Clin Pathol. 1999 May;111(5):700-6. Abstract

46. Raschke RA, Gallo T, Curry SC, et al. Clinical effectiveness of a Bayesian algorithm for the diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 2017 Aug;15(8):1640-5. Abstract

47. Greinacher A, Farner B, Kroll H, et al. Clinical features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia including risk factors for thrombosis. A retrospective analysis of 408 patients. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Jul;94(1):132-5. Abstract

48. Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Curr Hematol Rep. 2002 Sep;1(1):63-72. Abstract

49. Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Koster A, et al. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th ed). Chest. 2008 Jun;133(6 Suppl):340S-380S. Abstract

50. Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G, et al. 2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J. 2014 Nov 14;35(43):3033-69. Abstract

51. Linkins LA, Dans AL, Moores LK, et al. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis (9th ed). American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e495S-e530S. Abstract

52. Srinivasan AF, Rice L, Bartholomew JR, et al. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis and venous limb gangrene in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):66-70.Full text  Abstract

53. Linkins LA, Warkentin TE, Pai M, et al. Rivaroxaban for treatment of suspected or confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia study. J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Jun;14(6):1206-10. Abstract

54. Warkentin TE, Pai M, Linkins LA. Direct oral anticoagulants for treatment of HIT: update of Hamilton experience and literature review. Blood. 2017 Aug 31;130(9):1104-13.Full text  Abstract

55. Davis KA, Davis DO. Direct acting oral anticoagulants for the treatment of suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol. 2017 Oct;99(4):332-5.Full text  Abstract

56. Casan JM, Grigoriadis G, Chan N, et al. Rivaroxaban in treatment refractory heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Aug 12;2016. Abstract

57. Koster A, Selleng S. Management of intraoperative anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing surgery. In: Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, eds. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. 5th ed. Boca Raton, FL: Informa Healthcare; 2013:550-72.

58. Alatri A, Armstrong AE, Greinacher A, et al. Results of a consensus meeting on the use of argatroban in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requiring antithrombotic therapy - a European perspective. Thromb Res. 2012 Apr;129(4):426-33. Abstract

59. Karafin MS, Sachais BS, Connelly-Smith L, et al. NHLBI state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis: knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the area of hematology-oncology. J Clin Apher. 2016 Feb;31(1):38-47.Full text  Abstract

60. Padmanabhan A, Jones CG, Pechauer SM, et al. IVIg for treatment of severe refractory heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Chest. 2017 Sep;152(3):478-85.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer