Sepsis in children

References

Key articles

Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Abstract

Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;21(2):e52-e106.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sept 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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28. Hack CE, Zeerleder S. The endothelium in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7 suppl):S21-7. Abstract

29. Pathan N, Hemingway CA, Alizadeh AA, et al. Role of interleukin 6 in myocardial dysfunction of meningococcal septic shock. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):203-9. Abstract

30. Bantel H, Schulze-Osthoff K. Cell death in sepsis. Crit Care. 2009;13(4):173.Full text  Abstract

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32. Singer M. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1;5(1):66-72.Full text  Abstract

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47. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

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54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: central line-associated blood stream infections. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

55. de Souza DC, Barreira ER, Faria LS. The epidemiology of sepsis in childhood. Shock. 2017 Jan;47(1S suppl 1):2-5. Abstract

56. Weiss SL, Parker B, Bullock ME, et al. Defining pediatric sepsis by different criteria: discrepancies in populations and implications for clinical practice. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul;13(4):e219-26. Abstract

57. Daniels R, Nutbeam T, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J. 2011 Jun;28(6):507-12.Full text  Abstract

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62. Pammi M, Flores A, Versalovic J, et al. Molecular assays for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 25;(2):CD011926.Full text  Abstract

63. Borthwick EMJ, Hill CJ, Rabindranath KS, et al. High-volume haemofiltration for sepsis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 31;(1):CD008075.Full text  Abstract

64. Levi M, Toh CH, Thachil J, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Br J Haematol. 2009 Apr;145(1):24-33.Full text  Abstract

65. Pontrelli G, De Crescenzo F, Buzzetti R, et al. Accuracy of serum procalcitonin for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates and children with systemic inflammatory syndrome: a meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Apr 24;17(1):302.Full text  Abstract

66. Trippella G, Galli L, De Martino M, et al. Procalcitonin performance in detecting serious and invasive bacterial infections in children with fever without apparent source: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2017 Nov;15(11):1041-1057.Full text  Abstract

67. Downes KJ, Fitzgerald JC, Weiss SL. Utility of procalcitonin as a biomarker for sepsis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Jun 24;58(7):.Full text  Abstract

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69. Casado-Flores J, Blanco-Quirós A, Asensio J, et al. Serum procalcitonin in children with suspected sepsis: a comparison with C-reactive protein and neutrophil count. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;4(2):190-5. Abstract

70. Brown JVE, Meader N, Cleminson J, et al. C-reactive protein for diagnosing late-onset infection in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 14;1:CD012126.Full text  Abstract

71. Stocker M, van Herk W, El Helou S, et al. Procalcitonin-guided decision making for duration of antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (NeoPIns). Lancet. 2017 Aug 26;390(10097):871-81. Abstract

72. Dai J, Jiang W, Min Z, et al. Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker for neonatal sepsis: meta-analysis. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017 Mar-Apr;26(2):327-32.Full text  Abstract

73. Shahkar L, Keshtkar A, Mirfazeli A, et al. The role of IL-6 for predicting neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;21(4):411-7.Full text  Abstract

74. Shi J, Tang J, Chen D. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil CD64 for neonatal sepsis. Ital J Pediatr. 2016 Jun 7;42(1):57.Full text  Abstract

75. Zhou M, Cheng S, Yu J, et al. Interleukin-8 for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 May 21;10(5):e0127170.Full text  Abstract

76. Sun B, Liang LF, Li J, et al. A meta-analysis of interleukin-6 as a valid and accurate index in diagnosing early neonatal sepsis. Int Wound J. 2019 Apr;16(2):527-533.Full text  Abstract

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78. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neonatal infection: antibiotics for prevention and treatment. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

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80. Macrae D, Grieve R, Allen E, et al. A randomized trial of hyperglycemic control in pediatric intensive care. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 9;370(2):107-18.Full text  Abstract

81. Deep A, Sagar H, Goonasekera C, et al. Evolution of acute kidney injury and its association with systemic hemodynamics in children with fluid-refractory septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul;46(7):e677-83. Abstract

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83. Salazar ML, Eiland LS. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal resembling serotonin syndrome in an adolescent boy with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Oct;24(10):691-3. Abstract

84. Vergnano S, Sharland M, Kazembe P, et al. Neonatal sepsis: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 May;90(3):F220-4.Full text  Abstract

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89. Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman. Time to act: severe sepsis - rapid diagnosis and treatment saves lives. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

90. Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Full text  Abstract

91. Paul R, Neuman MI, Monuteaux MC, et al. Adherence to PALS sepsis guidelines and hospital length of stay. Pediatrics. 2012 Aug;130(2):e273-80.Full text  Abstract

92. Paul R, Melendez E, Stack A, et al. Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines. Pediatrics. 2014 May;133(5):e1358-66.Full text  Abstract

93. Larsen GY, Mecham N, Greenberg R. An emergency department septic shock protocol and care guideline for children initiated at triage. Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1585-92. Abstract

94. Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA, et al. Implementation of goal-directed therapy for children with suspected sepsis in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e758-66. Abstract

95. Chong SL, Ong GY, Venkataraman A, et al. The golden hours in paediatric septic shock--current updates and recommendations. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014 May;43(5):267-74. Abstract

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98. Carcillo JA. Intravenous fluid choices in critically ill children. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014 Aug;20(4):396-401. Abstract

99. Medeiros DN, Ferranti JF, Delgado AF, et al. Colloids for the initial management of severe sepsis and septic shock in pediatric patients: a systematic review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015 Nov;31(11):e11-6. Abstract

100. Food and Drug Administration. Labeling changes on mortality, kidney injury, and excess bleeding with hydroxyethyl starch products. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

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106. Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, et al. Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2483-95.Full text  Abstract

107. Li D, Li X, Cui W, et al. Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in adults and children with sepsis or septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 10;12:CD010593.Full text  Abstract

108. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital. Jun 2020 [internet publication].Full text

109. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sept 2017 [internet publication].Full text

110. Bagshaw SM, Brophy PD, Cruz D, et al. Fluid balance as a biomarker: impact of fluid overload on outcome in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2008;12(4):169.Full text  Abstract

111. Boschee ED, Cave DA, Garros D, et al. Indications and outcomes in children receiving renal replacement therapy in pediatric intensive care. J Crit Care. 2014 Feb;29(1):37-42. Abstract

112. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun;34(6):1589-96. Abstract

113. Wang XD, Huo XM, Xu MX, et al. Clinical research of timing of application of antibiotics in septic shock of pediatric patients [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2013 Apr;25(4):207-10. Abstract

114. Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Balamuth F, et al. Delayed antimicrobial therapy increases mortality and organ dysfunction duration in pediatric sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2409-17.Full text  Abstract

115. Korang SK, Safi S, Nava C, et al. Antibiotic regimens for early-onset neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 17;5:CD013837.Full text  Abstract

116. Simmons ML, Durham SH, Carter CW. Pharmacological management of pediatric patients with sepsis. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2012 Oct-Dec;23(4):437-48. Abstract

117. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer. Sep 2012 [internet publication].Full text

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121. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

122. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

123. Ninis N, Phillips C, Bailey L, et al. The role of healthcare delivery in the outcome of meningococcal disease in children: case-control study of fatal and non-fatal cases. BMJ. 2005 Jun 25;330(7506):1475.Full text  Abstract

124. Ozturk MA, Gunes T, Koklu E, et al. Oral nystatin prophylaxis to prevent invasive candidiasis in neonatal intensive care unit. Mycoses. 2006 Nov;49(6):484-92. Abstract

125. Hsieh E, Smith PB, Jacqz-Aigrain E, et al. Neonatal fungal infections: when to treat? Early Hum Dev. 2012 May;88(suppl 2):S6-10.Full text  Abstract

126. El-Wiher N, Cornell TT, Kissoon N, et al. Management and treatment guidelines for sepsis in pediatric patients. Open Inflamm J. 2011 Oct 7;4(suppl 1-M11):101-9.Full text  Abstract

127. Malosh RE, Martin ET, Heikkinen T, et al. Efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in children: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 May 2;66(10):1492-1500.Full text  Abstract

128. Karam O, Tucci M, Ducruet T, et al. Red blood cell transfusion thresholds in pediatric patients with sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep;12(5):512-8. Abstract

129. Holst LB, Haase N, Wetterslev J, et al. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;371(15):1381-91.Full text  Abstract

130. Zimmerman JJ. A history of adjunctive glucocorticoid treatment for pediatric sepsis: moving beyond steroid pulp fiction toward evidence-based medicine. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007 Nov;8(6):530-9. Abstract

131. Aneja R, Carcillo JA. What is the rationale for hydrocortisone treatment in children with infection-related adrenal insufficiency and septic shock? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Feb;92(2):165-9.Full text  Abstract

132. Ohlsson A, Lacy JB. Intravenous immunoglobulin for suspected or proven infection in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 27;(3):CD001239.Full text  Abstract

133. Alejandria MM, Lansang MD, Dans LF, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 16;(9):CD001090.Full text  Abstract

134. INIS Collaborative Group, Brocklehurst P, Farrell B, King A, et al. Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 29;365(13):1201-11.Full text  Abstract

135. Parks T, Wilson C, Curtis N, et al. Polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin in clindamycin-treated patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 15;67(9):1434-1436.Full text  Abstract

136. Marlow N, Morris T, Brocklehurst P, et al. A randomised trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for neonatal sepsis: outcomes at 2 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013 Jan;98(1):F46-53.Full text  Abstract

137. Carr R, Brocklehurst P, Doré CJ, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor administered as prophylaxis for reduction of sepsis in extremely preterm, small for gestational age neonates (the PROGRAMS trial): a single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 Jan 17;373(9659):226-33. Abstract

138. Korang SK, Safi S, Nava C, et al. Antibiotic regimens for late-onset neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 8;5:CD013836.Full text  Abstract

139. Harris E, Schulzke SM, Patole SK. Pentoxifylline in preterm neonates: a systematic review. Paediatr Drugs. 2010 Oct 1;12(5):301-11. Abstract

140. Pammi M, Haque KN. Pentoxifylline for treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 9;(3):CD004205.Full text  Abstract

141. Adel M, Awad HA, Abdel-Naim AB, et al. Effects of pentoxifylline on coagulation profile and disseminated intravascular coagulation incidence in Egyptian septic neonates. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010 Jun;35(3):257-65. Abstract

142. Skarda DE, Mulier KE, Myers DE, et al. Dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in patients with severe sepsis. Shock. 2007 Apr;27(4):348-53. Abstract

143. Mesquida J, Masip J, Gili G, et al. Thenar oxygen saturation measured by near infrared spectroscopy as a noninvasive predictor of low central venous oxygen saturation in septic patients. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Jun;35(6):1106-9. Abstract

144. Lima A, van Bommel J, Jansen TC, et al. Low tissue oxygen saturation at the end of early goal-directed therapy is associated with worse outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2009;13(suppl 5):S13.Full text  Abstract

145. Friedman G, Silva E, Vincent JL. Has the mortality of septic shock changed with time? Crit Care Med. 1998 Dec;26(12):2078-86. Abstract

146. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7):1303-10. Abstract

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