Bell's palsy

References

Key articles

Gronseth GS, Paduga R; American Academy of Neurology. Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy. Neurology. 2012 (reaffirmed 2020) Nov 27;79(22):2209-13.Full text  Abstract

Madhok VB, Gagyor I, Daly F, et al. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(7):CD001942.Full text  Abstract

Gagyor I, Madhok VB, Daly F, et al. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 5;9:CD001869.Full text  Abstract

Gantz BJ, Rubinstein JT, Gidley P, et al. Surgical management of Bell palsy. Laryngoscope. 1999 Aug;109(8):1177-88. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Peitersen E. The natural history of Bell palsy. Am J Otol. 1982 Oct;4(2):107-11. Abstract

2. Dong SH, Jung AR, Jung J, et al. Recurrent Bell's palsy. Clin Otolaryngol. 2019 May;44(3):305-12.Full text  Abstract

3. Peitersen E. Bell palsy: the spontaneous course of 2,500 peripheral facial nerve palsies of different etiologies. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2002;(549):4-30. Abstract

4. Jowett N, Hadlock TA. Contemporary management of Bell palsy. Facial Plast Surg. 2015 Apr;31(2):93-102.Full text  Abstract

5. House JW, Brackmann DE. Facial nerve grading system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985 Apr;93(2):146-7. Abstract

6. Ross BG, Fradet G, Nedzelski JM. Development of a sensitive clinical facial grading system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996 Mar;114(3):380-6. Abstract

7. Banks CA, Bhama PK, Park J, et al. Clinician-graded electronic facial paralysis assessment: the eFACE. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Aug;136(2):223e-30e. Abstract

8. Malka R, Miller M, Guarin D, et al. Reliability between in-person and still photograph assessment of facial function in facial paralysis using the eFACE facial grading system. Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med. 2021 Sep;23(5):344-49.Full text  Abstract

9. Banks CA, Jowett N, Hadlock TA. Test-retest reliability and agreement between in-person and video assessment of facial mimetic function using the eFACE facial grading system. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2017 May 1;19(3):206-11.Full text  Abstract

10. Benatar M, Edlow J. The spectrum of cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell's palsy. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 22;164(21):2383-5. Abstract

11. May M, Hardin WB, Sullivan J, et al. Natural history of Bell palsy: the salivary flow test and other prognostic indicators. Laryngoscope. 1976 May;86(5):704-12. Abstract

12. Hauser WA, Karnes WE, Annis J, et al. Incidence and prognosis of Bell palsy in the population of Rochester, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 1971 Apr;46(4):258-64. Abstract

13. Yanagihara N. Incidence of Bell palsy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1988 Nov-Dec;137:3-4. Abstract

14. Evangelista V, Gooding MS, Pereira L. Bell's palsy in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2019 Nov;74(11):674-78.Full text  Abstract

15. Fuzi J, Spencer S, Seckold E, et al. Bell's palsy during pregnancy and the post-partum period: A contemporary management approach. Am J Otolaryngol. 2021 May-Jun;42(3):102914.Full text  Abstract

16. Gaudin RA, Remenschneider AK, Phillips K, et al. Facial palsy after dental procedures - Is viral reactivation responsible? J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017 Jan;45(1):71-5.Full text  Abstract

17. Murakami S, Mizobuchi M, Nakashiro Y, et al. Bell palsy and herpes simplex virus: identification of viral DNA in endoneurial fluid and muscle. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124(Part 1):27-30. Abstract

18. Esaki S, Yamano K, Katsumi S, et al. Facial nerve palsy after reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in diabetic mice. Laryngoscope. 2015 Apr;125(4):E143-8. Abstract

19. Kisaki H, Hato N, Mizobuchi M, et al. Role of T-lymphocyte subsets in facial nerve paralysis owing to the reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005 Mar;125(3):316-21. Abstract

20. Gorodezky C, Carranza JM, Bustamante A, et al. The HLA system and T-cell subsets in Bell palsy. Acta Otolaryngol. 1991;111(6):1070-4. Abstract

21. Tekgul H, Polat M, Serdaroglu G, et al. Lymphocyte subsets in Bell palsy: immune pathogenesis and outcome prediction. Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Oct;31(4):258-60. Abstract

22. Alshami S, Hodge D, Bradley E, The epidemiology and surgical outcomes of facial nerve palsy in a population-based cohort. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017 June;58(8):3848.Full text

23. Townsend JJ, Collins PK. Peripheral nervous system demyelination with herpes simplex virus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1986 Jul;45(4):419-25. Abstract

24. Fisch U. Surgery for Bell's palsy. Arch Otolaryngol. 1981 Jan;107(1):1-11. Abstract

25. Mutsch M, Zhou W, Rhodes P, et al. Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell palsy in Switzerland. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 26;350(9):896-903. Abstract

26. Holland NJ, Weiner GM. Recent developments in Bell's palsy. BMJ. 2004 Sep 4;329(7465):553-7.Full text  Abstract

27. Brandenburg NA, Annegers JF. Incidence and risk factors for Bell palsy in Laredo, Texas: 1974-1982. Neuroepidemiology. 1993;12(6):313-25. Abstract

28. Abraham-Inpijn L, Devriese PP, Hart AA. Predisposing factors in Bell palsy: a clinical study with reference to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, clotting mechanism and lipid disturbance. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1982 Apr;7(2):99-105. Abstract

29. Gilden DH. Clinical practice. Bell's palsy. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 23;351(13):1323-31. Abstract

30. Gilden D, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R, et al. Neurological disease produced by varicella zoster virus reactivation without rash. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;342:243-53.Full text  Abstract

31. Chweya CM, Anzalone CL, Driscoll CLW, et al. For whom the Bell's toll: recurrent facial nerve paralysis, a retrospective study and systematic review of the literature. Otol Neurotol. 2019 Apr;40(4):517-28. Abstract

32. Pacheco A, Rutler O, Valenzuela I, et al. Positive tests for Lyme disease and emergency department visits for Bell's palsy patients. J Emerg Med. 2020 Dec;59(6):820-7.Full text  Abstract

33. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: cranial neuropathy. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

34. Gronseth GS, Paduga R; American Academy of Neurology. Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy. Neurology. 2012 (reaffirmed 2020) Nov 27;79(22):2209-13.Full text  Abstract

35. Sullivan FM, Swan IR, Donnan PT, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the use of aciclovir and/or prednisolone for the early treatment of Bell's palsy: the BELLS study. Health Technol Assess. 2009 Oct;13(47):iii-iv, ix-xi 1-130.Full text  Abstract

36. Hato N, Yamada H, Kohno H, et al. Valacyclovir and prednisolone treatment for Bell's palsy: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Otol Neurotol. 2007 Apr;28(3):408-13. Abstract

37. Engström M, Berg T, Stjernquist-Desatnik A, et al. Prednisolone and valaciclovir in Bell's palsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Nov;7(11):993-1000. Abstract

38. Madhok VB, Gagyor I, Daly F, et al. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(7):CD001942.Full text  Abstract

39. Gagyor I, Madhok VB, Daly F, et al. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 5;9:CD001869.Full text  Abstract

40. Sullivan FM, Swan IR, Donnan PT, et al. Early treatment with prednisolone or acyclovir in Bell's palsy. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 18;357(16):1598-607. Abstract

41. Axelsson S, Berg T, Jonsson L, et al. Prednisolone in Bell's palsy related to treatment start and age. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jan;32(1):141-6. Abstract

42. Axelsson S, Berg T, Jonsson L, et al. Bell's palsy - the effect of prednisolone and/or valaciclovir versus placebo in relation to baseline severity in a randomised controlled trial. Clin Otolaryngol. 2012 Aug;37(4):283-90. Abstract

43. Berg T, Bylund N, Marsk E, et al. The effect of prednisolone on sequelae in Bell's palsy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 May;138(5):445-9.Full text  Abstract

44. Fujiwara T, Namekawa M, Kuriyama A, et al. High-dose corticosteroids for adult Bell's palsy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Otol Neurotol. 2019 Sep;40(8):1101-8.Full text  Abstract

45. Jowett N, Gaudin RA, Banks CA, et al. Steroid use in Lyme disease-associated facial palsy is associated with worse long-term outcomes. Laryngoscope. 2017 Jun;127(6):1451-8.Full text  Abstract

46. Jalali MM, Soleimani R, Soltanipour S, et al. Pharmacological treatments of Bell's palsy in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Laryngoscope. 2021 Jul;131(7):1615-25.Full text  Abstract

47. de Almeida JR, Al Khabori M, Guyatt GH, et al. Combined corticosteroid and antiviral treatment for Bell palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009 Sep 2;302(9):985-93.Full text  Abstract

48. Goudakos JK, Markou KD. Corticosteroids vs corticosteroids plus antiviral agents in the treatment of Bell palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Jun;135(6):558-64.Full text  Abstract

49. Quant EC, Jeste SS, Muni RH, et al. The benefits of steroids versus steroids plus antivirals for treatment of Bell's palsy: a meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009 Sep 7;339:b3354.Full text  Abstract

50. Fisch U. Surgery for Bell's palsy. Arch Otolaryngol. 1981 Jan;107(1):1-11. Abstract

51. Gantz BJ, Rubinstein JT, Gidley P, et al. Surgical management of Bell palsy. Laryngoscope. 1999 Aug;109(8):1177-88. Abstract

52. Menchetti I, McAllister K, Walker D, et al. Surgical interventions for the early management of Bell's palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 26;1:CD007468.Full text  Abstract

53. May M, Klein SR, Taylor FH. Idiopathic (Bell's) facial palsy: natural history defies steroid or surgical treatment. Laryngoscope. 1985 Apr;95(4):406-9. Abstract

54. Lee SY, Seong J, Kim YH. Clinical implication of facial nerve decompression in complete Bell's palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Nov;12(4):348-59.Full text  Abstract

55. Baugh RF, Basura GJ, Ishii LE, et al. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's palsy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Nov;149(3 Suppl):S1-27.Full text  Abstract

56. Casazza GC, Schwartz SR, Gurgel RK. Systematic review of facial nerve outcomes after middle fossa decompression and transmastoid decompression for Bell's palsy with complete facial paralysis. Otol Neurotol. 2018 Dec;39(10):1311-8.Full text  Abstract

57. The College of Optometrists. Facial palsy (Bell's palsy). Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

58. Beutner KR, Friedman DJ, Forszpaniak C, et al. Valaciclovir compared with acyclovir for improved therapy for herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Jul;39(7):1546-53.Full text  Abstract

59. Borodic G, Bartley M, Slattery W, et al. Botulinum toxin for aberrant facial nerve regeneration: double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using subjective endpoints. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Jul;116(1):36-43. Abstract

60. Fuzi J, Taylor A, Sideris A, et al. Does botulinum toxin therapy improve quality of life in patients with facial palsy? Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2020 Oct;44(5):1811-9.Full text  Abstract

61. Teixeira LJ, Valbuza JS, Prado GF, et al. Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(12):CD006283.Full text  Abstract

62. Beurskens CH, Heymans PG, Oostendorp RA. Stability of benefits of mime therapy in sequelae of facial nerve paresis during a 1-year period. Otol Neurotol. 2006 Oct;27(7):1037-42. Abstract

63. Pourmomeny AA, Zadmehre H, Mirshamsi M, et al. Prevention of synkinesis by biofeedback therapy: a randomized clinical trial. Otol Neurotol. 2014 Apr;35(4):739-42. Abstract

64. Nicastri M, Mancini P, De Seta D, et al. Efficacy of early physical therapy in severe Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Jul-Aug;27(6):542-51. Abstract

65. Chen N, Zhou M, He L, et al. Acupuncture for Bell's palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(8):CD002914. Abstract

66. Holland NJ, Bernstein JM, Hamilton JW, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Bell's palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(2):CD007288.Full text  Abstract

67. Racic G, Denoble PJ, Sprem N, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen as a therapy of Bell's palsy. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1997;24(1):35-8. Abstract

68. Gillman GS, Schaitkin BM, May M, et al. Bell palsy in pregnancy: a study of recovery outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Jan;126(1):26-30. Abstract

69. Shmorgun D, Chan WS, Ray JG. Association between Bell's palsy in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. QJM. 2002 Jun;95(6):359-62.Full text  Abstract

70. Cuenca-Martínez F, Zapardiel-Sánchez E, Carrasco-González E, et al. Assessing anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with peripheral facial palsy: a systematic review. PeerJ. 2020;8:e10449.Full text  Abstract

71. Hotton M, Huggons E, Hamlet C, et al. The psychosocial impact of facial palsy: A systematic review. Br J Health Psychol. 2020 Sep;25(3):695-727.Full text  Abstract

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