Approach

Amblyopia is best treated at an early age, when the visual system shows greatest plasticity. Amblyopia should, therefore, be diagnosed as soon as possible. The primary care provider with access only to simple, inexpensive tests can detect a child with risk factors for the development of amblyopia. In the US, screening tests are advised throughout childhood, but are particularly recommended in children aged 3 to 5 years.[24] If a child is considered to be at risk of amblyopia after the initial exam, referral to an orthoptist, a paediatric ophthalmologist, or a paediatric optometrist is required. These specialists can perform a more complete ophthalmic examination to confirm the diagnosis.

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