Hypoventilation syndromes

References

Key articles

American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. Sleep. 1999;22:667-689. Abstract

Piper AJ, Grunstein RR. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: mechanisms and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:292-298. Abstract

Ragette R, Mellies U, Schwake C, et al. Patterns and predictors of sleep disordered breathing in primary myopathies. Thorax. 2002;57:724-728. Abstract

Mokhlesi B, Tulaimat A. Recent advances in obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Chest. 2007;132:1322-1336.Full text  Abstract

Weese-Mayer DE, Berry-Kravis EM, Ceccherini I, et al. An official ATS clinical policy statement: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: genetic basis, diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:626-644.Full text  Abstract

Culebras A. Sleep disorders and neuromuscular disease. Semin Neurol. 2005;25:33-38. Abstract

Berry RB, Chediak A, Brown LK, et al. Best clinical practices for the sleep center adjustment of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in stable chronic alveolar hypoventilation syndromes. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:491-509.Full text  Abstract

Arzt M, Floras JS, Logan AG, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure. Circulation. 2007;115:3173-3180.Full text  Abstract

Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnea in systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1095-105.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. Sleep. 1999;22:667-689. Abstract

2. Mokhlesi B, Tulaimat A, Faibussowitsch I, et al. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: prevalence and predictors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2007;11:117-124. Abstract

3. Kessler R, Chaouat A, Schinkewitch P, et al. The obesity-hypoventilation syndrome revisited: a prospective study of 34 consecutive cases. Chest. 2001;120:369-376.Full text  Abstract

4. Lecube A, Sampol G, Lloberes P, et al. Asymptomatic sleep-disordered breathing in premenopausal women awaiting bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010;20:454-461. Abstract

5. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Liming JD, et al. Sleep apnea in 81 ambulatory male patients with stable heart failure: types and their prevalences, consequences, and presentations. Circulation. 1998;97:2154-2159.Full text  Abstract

6. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, et al. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:1101-1106.Full text  Abstract

7. Oldenburg O, Lamp B, Faber L, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a contemporary study of prevalence in and characteristics of 700 patients. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007;9:251-257. Abstract

8. Krachman SL, D'Alonzo GE, Berger TJ, et al. Comparison of oxygen therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure on Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep in congestive heart failure. Chest. 1999;116:1550-1557.Full text  Abstract

9. Berthon-Jones M, Sullivan CE. Ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in sleeping humans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125:632-639. Abstract

10. Berthon-Jones M, Sullivan CE. Ventilation and arousal responses to hypercapnia in normal sleeping humans. J Appl Physiol. 1984;57:59-67. Abstract

11. Berthon-Jones M, Sullivan CE. Time course of change in ventilatory response to CO2 with long-term CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135:144-147. Abstract

12. Zwillich CW, Sutton FD, Pierson DJ, et al. Decreased hypoxic ventilatory drive in the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Am J Med. 1975;59:343-348. Abstract

13. Perez de Llano LA, Golpe R, Ortiz Piquer M, et al. Short-term and long-term effects of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Chest. 2005;128:587-594.Full text  Abstract

14. Phipps PR, Starritt E, Caterson I, et al. Association of serum leptin with hypoventilation in human obesity. Thorax. 2002;57:75-76. Abstract

15. Piper AJ, Grunstein RR. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: mechanisms and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:292-298. Abstract

16. Ragette R, Mellies U, Schwake C, et al. Patterns and predictors of sleep disordered breathing in primary myopathies. Thorax. 2002;57:724-728. Abstract

17. Bourke SC, Bullock RE, Williams TL, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in ALS: indications and effect on quality of life. Neurology. 2003;61:171-177. Abstract

18. Naughton M, Benard D, Tam A, et al. Role of hyperventilation in the pathogenesis of central sleep apneas in patients with congestive heart failure. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148:330-338. Abstract

19. Hanly P, Zuberi N, Gray R. Pathogenesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: relationship to arterial PCO2. Chest. 1993;104:1079-1084. Abstract

20. Javaheri S. A mechanism of central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:949-954.Full text  Abstract

21. Wilcox I, McNamara SG, Dodd MJ, et al. Ventilatory control in patients with sleep apnoea and left ventricular dysfunction: comparison of obstructive and central sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 1998;11:7-13. Abstract

22. Arzt M, Harth M, Luchner A, et al. Enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea. Circulation. 2003;107:1998-2003.Full text  Abstract

23. Mokhlesi B, Tulaimat A. Recent advances in obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Chest. 2007;132:1322-1336.Full text  Abstract

24. Trang H, Dehan M, Beaufils F, et al; French CCHS Working Group. The French Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome Registry: general data, phenotype, and genotype. Chest. 2005;127:72-79.Full text  Abstract

25. Berry-Kravis EM, Zhou L, Rand CM, et al. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: PHOX2B mutations and phenotype. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:1139-1144.Full text  Abstract

26. Doherty LS, Kiely JL, Deegan PC, et al. Late-onset central hypoventilation syndrome: a family genetic study. Eur Respir J. 2007;29:312-316.Full text  Abstract

27. Weese-Mayer DE, Berry-Kravis EM, Ceccherini I, et al. An official ATS clinical policy statement: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: genetic basis, diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:626-644.Full text  Abstract

28. Culebras A. Sleep disorders and neuromuscular disease. Semin Neurol. 2005;25:33-38. Abstract

29. Ozsancak A, D'Ambrosio C, Hill NS. Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Chest. 2008;133:1275-1286.Full text  Abstract

30. Alves RS, Resende MB, Skomro RP, et al. Sleep and neuromuscular disorders in children. Sleep Med Rev. 2009;13:133-148. Abstract

31. Mokhlesi B, Kryger MH, Grunstein RR. Assessment and management of patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5:218-225.Full text  Abstract

32. Koenig SM. Pulmonary complications of obesity. Am J Med Sci. 2001;321:249-279. Abstract

33. Sawicka EH, Branthwaite MA. Respiration during sleep in kyphoscoliosis. Thorax. 1987;42:801-808. Abstract

34. Barthlen GM. Nocturnal respiratory failure as an indication of noninvasive ventilation in the patient with neuromuscular disease. Respiration. 1997;64(suppl 1):S35-S38. Abstract

35. Pradella M. Sleep polygraphic parameters in neuromuscular diseases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1994;52:476-483. Abstract

36. Bourke SC, Gibson GJ. Sleep and breathing in neuromuscular disease. Eur Respir J. 2002;19:1194-1201.Full text  Abstract

37. Lofaso F, Quera-Salva MA. Polysomnography for the management of progressive neuromuscular disorders. Eur Respir J. 2002;19:989-990.Full text  Abstract

38. Sivam S, Yee B, Wong K, et al. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: early detection of nocturnal-only hypercapnia in an obese population. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Sep 15;14(9):1477-1484.Full text  Abstract

39. Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Baron PL, et al. Gastric surgery for respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Chest. 1986;90:81-86. Abstract

40. Mokhlesi B, Masa JF, Brozek JL, et al. Evaluation and management of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Aug 1;200(3):e6-e24.Full text  Abstract

41. Suresh S, Wales P, Dakin C, et al. Sleep-related breathing disorder in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: disease spectrum in the paediatric population. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41:500-503. Abstract

42. Ellis ER, Grunstein RR, Chan S, et al. Noninvasive ventilatory support during sleep improves respiratory failure in kyphoscoliosis. Chest. 1998;94:811-815. Abstract

43. Ward S, Chatwin M, Heather S, et al. Randomized controlled trial on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for nocturnal hypoventilation in neuromuscular and chest wall disease patients with daytime normocapnia. Thorax. 2005;60:1019-1024. Abstract

44. Yeghiazarians Y, Jneid H, Tietjens JR, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Jul 20;144(3):e56-67.Full text  Abstract

45. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome in over 16s. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

46. Weinberg J, Klefbeck B, Borg J, et al. Polysomnography in chronic neuromuscular disease. Respiration. 2003;70:349-354. Abstract

47. Lechtzin N, Scott Y, Busse AM, et al. Early use of non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival in subjects with ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2007;8:185-188. Abstract

48. Sancho J, Servera E, Bañuls P, et al. Prolonging survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: efficacy of noninvasive ventilation and uncuffed tracheostomy tubes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;89:407-411. Abstract

49. Berry RB, Chediak A, Brown LK, et al. Best clinical practices for the sleep center adjustment of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in stable chronic alveolar hypoventilation syndromes. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:491-509.Full text  Abstract

50. McKim DA, Road J, Avendano M, et al; Canadian Thoracic Society Home Mechanical Ventilation Committee. Home mechanical ventilation: a Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Can Respir J. 2011;18:197-215.Full text  Abstract

51. Mokhlesi B, Tulaimat A, Evans AT, et al. Impact of adherence with positive airway pressure therapy on hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2006;2:57-62.Full text  Abstract

52. Hida W, Okabe S, Tatsumi K, et al. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure improves quality of life in obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2003;7:3-12. Abstract

53. Banerjee D, Yee, BJ, Piper AJ, et al. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: hypoxemia during continuous positive airway pressure. Chest. 2007;131:1678-1684.Full text  Abstract

54. Laaban JP, Orvoen-Frija E, Cassuto D, et al. Mechanisms of diurnal hypercapnia in sleep apnea syndromes associated with morbid obesity. Presse Med. 1996;25:12-16. (in French) Abstract

55. Shivaram U, Cash ME, Beal A. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in decompensated hypercapnic respiratory failure as a complication of sleep apnea. Chest. 1993;104:770-774.Full text  Abstract

56. Piper AJ, Wang D, Yee BJ, et al. Randomised trial of CPAP vs bilevel support in the treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe nocturnal desaturation. Thorax. 2008 May;63(5):395-401.Full text  Abstract

57. Howard ME, Piper AJ, Stevens B, et al. A randomised controlled trial of CPAP versus non-invasive ventilation for initial treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Thorax. 2017 May;72(5):437-444. Abstract

58. Laaban JP, Chailleux E. Daytime hypercapnia in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in France, before initiating nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Chest. 2005;127:710-715.Full text  Abstract

59. Mokhlesi B. Positive airway pressure titration in obesity hypoventilation syndrome: continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure. Chest. 2007;131:1624-1626.Full text  Abstract

60. Schafer H, Ewig S, Hasper E, et al. Failure of CPAP therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: predictive factors and treatment with bilevel-positive airway pressure. Respir Med. 1998;92:208-215. Abstract

61. Budweiser S, Riedl SG, Jorres RA, et al. Mortality and prognostic factors in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome undergoing noninvasive ventilation. J Intern Med. 2007;261:375-383.Full text  Abstract

62. Storre JH, Seuthe B, Fiechter R, et al. Average volume-assured pressure support in obesity hypoventilation: a randomized crossover trial. Chest. 2006;130:815-821.Full text  Abstract

63. Priou P, Hamel JF, Person C, et al. Long-term outcome of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Chest. 2010;138:84-90. Abstract

64. Berger KI, Ayappa I, Chatr-Amontri B, et al. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome as a spectrum of respiratory disturbances during sleep. Chest. 2001;120:1231-1238.Full text  Abstract

65. Redolfi S, Corda L, La Piana G, et al. Long-term non-invasive ventilation increases chemosensitivity and leptin in obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Respir Med. 2007;101:1191-1195. Abstract

66. de Lucas-Ramos P, de Miguel-Diez J, Santacruz-Siminiani A, et al. Benefits at 1 year of nocturnal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Respir Med. 2004;98:961-967. Abstract

67. Masa JF, Corral J, Alonso ML, et al. Efficacy of different treatment alternatives for obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:86-95. Abstract

68. Bouloukaki I, Mermigkis C, Michelakis S, et al. The association between adherence to positive airway pressure therapy and long-term outcomes in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a prospective observational study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Sep 15;14(9):1539-1550.Full text  Abstract

69. Masa JF, Celli BR, Riesco JA, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and not oxygen may prevent overt ventilatory failure in patients with chest wall diseases. Chest. 1997;112:207-213.Full text  Abstract

70. Hollier CA, Harmer AR, Maxwell LJ, et al. Moderate concentrations of supplemental oxygen worsen hypercapnia in obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a randomised crossover study. Thorax. 2014 Apr;69(4):346-53. Abstract

71. Masa JF, Celli BR, Riesco JA, et al. The obesity hypoventilation syndrome can be treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Chest. 2001;119:1102-1107. Abstract

72. Heinemann F, Budweiser S, Dobroschke J, et al. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improves lung volumes in the obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Respir Med. 2007;101:1229-1235. Abstract

73. Poulter NR, Chang CL, Farley TM, et al. Risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with oral progestagen preparations with therapeutic indications. Lancet. 1999;354:1610. Abstract

74. Kimura H, Tatsumi K, Kunitomo F, et al. Obese patients with sleep apnea syndrome treated by progesterone. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1988;156:151-157. Abstract

75. Lettieri CJ, Eliasson AH, Greenburg DL. Persistence of obstructive sleep apnea after surgical weight loss. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4:333-338.Full text  Abstract

76. Young HK, Lowe A, Fitzgerald DA, et al. Outcome of noninvasive ventilation in children with neuromuscular disease. Neurology. 2007;68:198-201. Abstract

77. Piper AJ, Sullivan CE. Effects of long-term nocturnal nasal ventilation on spontaneous breathing during sleep in neuromuscular and chest wall disorders. Eur Respir J. 1996;9:1515-1522.Full text  Abstract

78. Mellies U, Ragette R, Dohna Schwake CD, et al. Longterm noninvasive ventilation in children and adolescents with neuromuscular disorders. Eur Respir J. 2003;22:631-636.Full text  Abstract

79. Annane D, Orlikowski D, Chevret S. Nocturnal mechanical ventilation for chronic hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular and chest wall disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD001941.Full text  Abstract

80. Laub M, Midgren B. Survival of patients on home mechanical ventilation: a nationwide prospective study. Respir Med. 2007;101:1074-1078. Abstract

81. Bourke SC, Tomlinson M, Williams TL, et al. Effects of non-invasive ventilation on survival and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:140-147. Abstract

82. Takasaki Y, Orr D, Popkin J, et al. Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on sleep apnea in congestive heart failure. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;140:1578-1584. Abstract

83. Kohnlein T, Welte T, Tan LB, et al. Assisted ventilation for heart failure patient with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:934-941.Full text  Abstract

84. Naughton MT, Liu PP, Benard DC, et al. Treatment of congestive heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep by continuous positive airway pressure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151:92-97. Abstract

85. Arzt M, Schulz M, Wensel R, et al. Nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure improves ventilatory efficiency during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. Chest. 2005;127:794-802.Full text  Abstract

86. Naughton MT, Benard DC, Liu PP, et al. Effects of nasal CPAP on sympathetic activity in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:473-479. Abstract

87. Walsh JT, Andrews R, Starling R, et al. Effects of captopril and oxygen on sleep apnoea in patients with mild to moderate congestive cardiac failure. Br Heart J. 1995;73:237-241. Abstract

88. Naughton MT, Benard DC, Rutherford R, et al. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on central sleep apnea and nocturnal PCO2 in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150:1598-1604. Abstract

89. Bradley TD, Logan AG, Kimoff RJ, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure for central sleep apnea and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2025-2033.Full text  Abstract

90. Arzt M, Floras JS, Logan AG, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure. Circulation. 2007;115:3173-3180.Full text  Abstract

91. Teschler H, Döhring J, Wang YM, et al. Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation: a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:614-619.Full text  Abstract

92. Arzt M, Wensel R, Montalvan S, et al. Effects of dynamic bilevel positive airway pressure support on central sleep apnea in men with heart failure. Chest. 2008;134:61-66.Full text  Abstract

93. Pepperell JC, Maskell NA, Jones DR, et al. A randomized controlled trial of adaptive ventilation for Cheyne-Stokes breathing in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:1109-1114.Full text  Abstract

94. Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnea in systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1095-105.Full text  Abstract

95. Perger E, Lyons OD, Inami T, et al. Predictors of 1-year compliance with adaptive servoventilation in patients with heart failure and sleep disordered breathing: preliminary data from the ADVENT-HF trial. Eur Respir J. 2019 Feb 21;53(2). Abstract

96. Hanly PJ, Millar TW, Steljes DG, et al. The effect of oxygen on respiration and sleep in patients with congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:777-782. Abstract

97. Franklin KA, Eriksson P, Sahlin C, et al. Reversal of central sleep apnea with oxygen. Chest. 1997;111:163-169.Full text  Abstract

98. Lorenzi-Filho G, Rankin F, Bies I, et al. Effects of inhaled carbon dioxide and oxygen on Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:1490-1498.Full text  Abstract

99. Krachman SK, Nugent T, Crocetti J, et al. Effects of oxygen therapy on left ventricular function in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005;1:271-276. Abstract

100. Sanders JS, Berman TM, Barlett MM, et al. Increased hypoxic ventilatory drive due to administration of aminophylline in normal men. Chest. 1980;78:279-282. Abstract

101. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Wexler L, et al. Effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:562-567.Full text  Abstract

102. DeBacker WA, Verbraecken J, Willemen M, et al. Central apnea index decreases after prolonged treatment with acetazolamide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151:87-91. Abstract

103. Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:234-237.Full text  Abstract

104. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35:17-40.Full text  Abstract

105. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M, et al. A comparison of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:429-435.Full text  Abstract

106. Krachman SL, Quaranta AJ, Berger TJ, et al. Effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on gas exchange and sleep in COPD patients. Chest. 1997;112:623-628.Full text  Abstract

107. Jones SE, Packham S, Hebden M, et al. Domiciliary nocturnal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in patients with respiratory failure due to severe COPD: long-term follow-up and effect on survival. Thorax. 1998:53:495-498. Abstract

108. McEvoy RD, Pierce JR, Hillman PD, et al. Nocturnal non-invasive nasal ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax. 2009;64:561-566. Abstract

109. Elliott MW, Simonds AK, Carroll MP, et al. Domiciliary nocturnal nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive lung disease: effects on sleep and quality of life. Thorax. 1992;47:342-348. Abstract

110. Clini E, Sturani C, Rossi A, et al. The Italian multicentre study on noninvasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:529-538.Full text  Abstract

111. Murphy PB, Rehal S, Arbane G, et al. Effect of home noninvasive ventilation with oxygen therapy vs oxygen therapy alone on hospital readmission or death after an acute COPD exacerbation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Jun 6;317(21):2177-2186.Full text  Abstract

112. Anon. Clinical indications for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic respiratory failure due to restrictive lung disease, COPD, and nocturnal hypoventilation: a consensus conference report. Chest. 1999;116:521-534.Full text  Abstract

113. Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial Group. Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease: a clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:391-398. Abstract

114. Chaouat A, Weitzenblum E, Kessler R, et al. A randomized trial of nocturnal oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J. 1999;14:1002-1008.Full text  Abstract

115. Tuggey JM, Elliott MW. Titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic respiratory failure. Respir Med. 2006;100:1262-1269. Abstract

116. Ekkernkamp E, Storre JH, Windisch W, et al. Impact of intelligent volume-assured pressure support on sleep quality in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a randomized, crossover study. Respiration. 2014;88:270-276. Abstract

117. Nowbar S, Burkart KM, Gonzales R, et al. Obesity-associated hypoventilation in hospitalized patients: prevalence, effects, and outcome. Am J Med. 2004;116:1-7. Abstract

118. Kaw R, Bhateja P, Mar HP, et al. Postoperative complications in patients with unrecognized obesity hypoventilation syndrome undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Chest. 2016;149:84-91.Full text  Abstract

119. Berg G, Delaive K, Manfreda J, et al. The use of health-care resources in obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Chest. 2001;120:377-383.Full text  Abstract

120. Miske LJ, Hickey EM, Kolb SM, et al. Use of the mechanical in-exsufflator in pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease and impaired cough. Chest. 2004;125:1406-1412.Full text  Abstract

121. Hanly PJ, Zuberi-Khokhar NS. Increased mortality associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153:272-276. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer