The prevalence of precocious puberty is difficult to estimate but has been reported at 1 in 5000 children.[3] Gonadotrophin-dependent precocious puberty or central precocious puberty affects girls 10 times more commonly than boys.[3][4][5] This may be because activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis requires a lower dose of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in girls.[6] In the US, the number of girls diagnosed with precocious puberty is rising but there are no reliable data on the incidence. One study showed that 10% to 23% of 7-year old girls (depending on race and ethnicity) have breast development, but the proportion who have the type of progressive precocious puberty that might require treatment is likely much lower.[7][3]

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