Varicocele

References

Key articles

Bong GW, Koo HP. The adolescent varicocele: to treat or not to treat. Urol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;31(3):509-15. Abstract

Schlegel PN, Sigman M, Collura B, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility in men: AUA/ASRM guideline part I. J Urol. 2021 Jan;205(1):36-43.Full text  Abstract

Freeman S, Bertolotto M, Richenberg J, et al. Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: guidelines and recommendations of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) for detection, classification, and grading. Eur Radiol. 2020 Jan;30(1):11-25.Full text  Abstract

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2014 Dec;102(6):1556-60.Full text  Abstract

Persad E, O'Loughlin CA, Kaur S, et al. Surgical or radiological treatment for varicoceles in subfertile men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 23;4:CD000479.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Nguyen HT. Hernia, hydroceles, testicular torsion, and varicocele. In: Docimo SG, Canning DA, Khoury AE, eds. Clinical pediatric urology. London, UK: Informa Healthcare; 2007.

2. Diamond DA. Adolescent varicocele: emerging understanding. BJU Int. 2003 Oct;92 Suppl 1:48-51. Abstract

3. Evers JL, Collins JA. Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Lancet. 2003 May 31;361(9372):1849-52. Abstract

4. Steeno O, Knops J, Declerck L, et al. Prevention of fertility disorders by detection and treatment of varicocele at school and college age. Andrologia. 1976;8(1):47-53. Abstract

5. Kumanov P, Robeva RN, Tomova A. Adolescent varicocele: who is at risk? Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):e53-7. Abstract

6. Sylora JA, Pryor JL. Varicocele. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab. 1994;5:309-14. Abstract

7. Green KF, Turner TT, Howards SS. Varicocele: reversal of the testicular bloodflow and temperature effects by varicocele repair. J Urol. 1984 Jun;131(6):1208-11. Abstract

8. World Health Organization. The influence of varicocele on parameters of fertility in a large group of men presenting to infertility clinics. Fertil Steril. 1992 Jun;57(6):1289-93. Abstract

9. Gorelick JI, Goldstein M. Loss of fertility in men with varicocele. Fertil Steril. 1993 Mar;59(3):613-6. Abstract

10. Baazeem A, Belzile E, Ciampi A, et al. Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair. Eur Urol. 2011 Oct;60(4):796-808. Abstract

11. Vasavada S, Ross J, Nasrallah P, et al. Prepubertal varicoceles. Urology. 1997 Nov;50(5):774-7. Abstract

12. Prabakaran S, Kumanov P, Tomova A, et al. Adolescent varicocele: association with somatometric parameters. Urol Int. 2006;77(2):114-7. Abstract

13. Delaney DP, Carr MC, Kolon TF, et al. The physical characteristics of young males with varicocele. BJU Int. 2004 Sep;94(4):624-6. Abstract

14. May M, Taymoorian K, Beutner S, et al. Body size and weight as predisposing factors in varicocele. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(1):45-8. Abstract

15. Xiao-Bin G, Fang-Lei W, Hui X, et al. The association between body mass index and varicocele: a meta-analysis. Int Braz J Urol. 2021 Jan-Feb;47(1):8-19.Full text  Abstract

16. Raman JD, Walmsley K, Goldstein M. Inheritance of varicoceles. Urology. 2005 Jun;65(6):1186-9. Abstract

17. Mohammadali Beigi F, Mehrabi S, Javaherforooshzadeh A. Varicocele in brothers of patients with varicocele. Urol J. 2007 Winter;4(1):33-5. Abstract

18. Mokhtari G, Pourreza F, Falahatkar S, et al. Comparison of prevalence of varicocele in first-degree relatives of patients with varicocele and male kidney donors. Urology. 2008 Apr;71(4):666-8. Abstract

19. Sigmund G, Gall H, Bahren W. Stop-type and shunt-type varicoceles: venographic findings. Radiology. 1987 Apr;163(1):105-10. Abstract

20. Bong GW, Koo HP. The adolescent varicocele: to treat or not to treat. Urol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;31(3):509-15. Abstract

21. Wishahi MM. Anatomy of the spermatic venous plexus (pampiniform plexus) in men with and without varicocele: intraoperative venographic study. J Urol. 1992 May;147(5):1285-9. Abstract

22. Bong GW, Koo HP. The adolescent varicocele: to treat or not to treat. Urol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;31(3):509-15. Abstract

23. Paduch DA, Niedzielski J. Semen analysis in young men with varicocele: preliminary study. J Urol. 1996 Aug;156(2 Pt 2):788-90. Abstract

24. Lenzi A, Gandini L, Bagolan P, et al. Sperm parameters after early left varicocele treatment. Fertil Steril. 1998 Feb;69(2):347-9. Abstract

25. Laven JS, Haans LC, Mali WP, et al. Effects of varicocele treatment in adolescents: a randomized study. Fertil Steril. 1992 Oct;58(4):756-62. Abstract

26. Chung JM, Lee SD. Current issues in adolescent varicocele: pediatric urological perspectives. World J Mens Health. 2018 May;36(2):123-31.Full text  Abstract

27. Schlegel PN, Sigman M, Collura B, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility in men: AUA/ASRM guideline part I. J Urol. 2021 Jan;205(1):36-43.Full text  Abstract

28. Elmer DeWitt M, Greene DJ, Gill B, et al. Isolated right varicocele and incidence of associated cancer. Urology. 2018 Jul;117:82-5.Full text  Abstract

29. Walker AR, Kogan BA. Cost-benefit analysis of scrotal ultrasound in treatment of adolescents with varicocele. J Urol. 2010 May;183(5):2008-11. Abstract

30. Freeman S, Bertolotto M, Richenberg J, et al. Ultrasound evaluation of varicoceles: guidelines and recommendations of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) for detection, classification, and grading. Eur Radiol. 2020 Jan;30(1):11-25.Full text  Abstract

31. Tanrikut C, Goldstein M, Rosoff JS, et al. Varicocele as a risk factor for androgen deficiency and effect of repair. BJU Int. 2011 Nov;108(9):1480-4.Full text  Abstract

32. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. Report on varicocele and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2014 Dec;102(6):1556-60.Full text  Abstract

33. European Association of Urology. Sexual and reproductive health guidelines. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

34. Zini A, Dohle G. Are varicoceles associated with increased deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation? Fertil Steril. 2011 Dec;96(6):1283-7.Full text  Abstract

35. Baker K, McGill J, Sharma R, et al. Pregnancy after varicocelectomy: impact of postoperative motility and DFI. Urology. 2013 Apr;81(4):760-6. Abstract

36. Wang YJ, Zhang RQ, Lin YJ, et al. Relationship between varicocele and sperm DNA damage and the effect of varicocele repair: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012 Sep;25(3):307-14. Abstract

37. Smit M, Romijn JC, Wildhagen MF, et al. Decreased sperm DNA fragmentation after surgical varicocelectomy is associated with increased pregnancy rate. J Urol. 2013 Jan;189(1 Suppl):S146-50. Abstract

38. Diamond DA, Paltiel HJ, DiCanzio J, et al. Comparative assessment of pediatric testicular volume: orchidometer versus ultrasound. J Urol. 2000 Sep;164(3 Pt 2):1111-4. Abstract

39. Meacham RB, Townsend RR, Rademacher D, et al. The incidence of varicoceles in the general population when evaluated by physical examination, gray scale sonography and color Doppler sonography. J Urol. 1994 Jun;151(6):1535-8. Abstract

40. Kursh ED. What is the incidence of varicocele in a fertile population? Fertil Steril. 1987 Sep;48(3):510-1. Abstract

41. Yuan R, Zhuo H, Cao D, et al. Efficacy and safety of varicocelectomies: a meta-analysis. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2017 Apr;63(2):120-9.Full text  Abstract

42. Al-Kandari AM, Shabaan H, Ibrahim HM, et al. Comparison of outcomes of different varicocelectomy techniques: open inguinal, laparoscopic, and subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy: a randomized clinical trial. Urology. 2007 Mar;69(3):417-20.Full text  Abstract

43. Al-Said S, Al-Naimi A, Al-Ansari A, Y, et al. Varicocelectomy for male infertility: a comparative study of open, laparoscopic and microsurgical approaches. J Urol. 2008 Jul;180(1):266-70. Abstract

44. Ding H, Tian J, Du W, et al. Open non-microsurgical, laparoscopic or open microsurgical varicocelectomy for male infertility: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJU Int. 2012 Nov;110(10):1536-42. Abstract

45. Thomas JC, Elder JS. Testicular growth arrest and adolescent varicocele: does varicocele size make a difference? J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 2):1689-91. Abstract

46. Li F, Chiba K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Effect of varicocelectomy on testicular volume in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Urology. 2012 Jun;79(6):1340-5. Abstract

47. Schlegel PN, Sigman M, Collura B, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility in men: AUA/ASRM guideline part II. J Urol. 2021 Jan;205(1):44-51.Full text  Abstract

48. Esteves SC, Roque M, Agarwal A. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl. 2016 Mar-Apr;18(2):254-8.Full text  Abstract

49. Kirby EW, Wiener LE, Rajanahally S, et al. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2016 Nov;106(6):1338-43. Abstract

50. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Management of nonobstructive azoospermia: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2018 Dec;110(7):1239-45.Full text  Abstract

51. Persad E, O'Loughlin CA, Kaur S, et al. Surgical or radiological treatment for varicoceles in subfertile men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 23;4:CD000479.Full text  Abstract

52. Asafu-Adjei D, Judge C, Deibert CM, et al. Systematic review of the impact of varicocele grade on response to surgical management. J Urol. 2020 Jan;203(1):48-56.Full text  Abstract

53. Esteves SC, Miyaoka R, Roque M, et al. Outcome of varicocele repair in men with nonobstructive azoospermia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl. 2016 Mar-Apr;18(2):246-53.Full text  Abstract

54. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility problems: assessment and treatment. NICE guideline CG156. Sept 2017 [internet publication].Full text

55. Hsiao W, Rosoff JS, Pale JR, et al. Varicocelectomy is associated with increases in serum testosterone independent of clinical grade. Urology. 2013 Jun;81(6):1213-7. Abstract

56. Schauer I, Madersbacher S, Jost R, et al. The impact of varicocelectomy on sperm parameters: a meta-analysis. J Urol. 2012 May;187(5):1540-7. Abstract

57. Li F, Yue H, Yamaguchi K, et al. Effect of surgical repair on testosterone production in infertile men with varicocele: a meta-analysis. Int J Urol. 2012 Feb;19(2):149-54. Abstract

58. Esposito C, Valla JS, Najmaldin A, et al. Incidence and management of hydrocele following varicocele surgery in children. J Urol. 2004 Mar;171(3):1271-3. Abstract

59. Misseri R, Gershbein AB, Horowitz M, et al. The adolescent varicocele. II: the incidence of hydrocele and delayed recurrent varicocele after varicocelectomy in a long-term follow-up. BJU Int. 2001 Apr;87(6):494-8. Abstract

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