Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea

References

Key articles

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25.Full text  Abstract

Goodman LR, Warren MP. The female athlete and menstrual function. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct;17(5):466-70. Abstract

Wellons MF, Weeber KM, Rebar RW. Amenorrhea. In: Falcone T, Hurd WW, eds. Clinical reproductive medicine and surgery: a practical guide. 3rd ed. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2017:109-22.

Reference articles

1. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25.Full text  Abstract

2. Gordon CM, Ackerman KE, Berga SL, et al. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 May 1;102(5):1413-39.Full text  Abstract

3. Timmreck LS, Reindollar RH. Contemporary issues in primary amenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;30(2):287-302. Abstract

4. Pettersson F, Fries H, Nillius SJ. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea: incidence and prevalence rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Sep 1;117(1):80-6. Abstract

5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and secondary amenorrhoea. In: Edmonds K, ed. Dewhurst's textbook of obstetrics and gynaecology. 9th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018:513-33.

6. Reindollar RH, Novak M, Tho SP, et al. Adult-onset amenorrhea: a study of 262 patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Sep;155(3):531-43. Abstract

7. Fourman LT, Fazeli PK. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea - an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar;100(3):812-24.Full text  Abstract

8. Insler V. Gonadotropin therapy: new trends and insights. Int J Fertil. 1988 Mar-Apr;33(2):85-6;89-97. Abstract

9. Cramer DW, Xu H, Harlow BL. Family history as a predictor of early menopause. Fertil Steril. 1995 Oct;64(4):740-5. Abstract

10. Brenner SH, Lessing JB, Quagliarello J, et al. Hyperprolactinemia and associated pituitary prolactinomas. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;65:661-664. Abstract

11. Management of acute obstructive uterovaginal anomalies: ACOG Committee opinion, number 779. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jun;133(6):e363-71.Full text  Abstract

12. Goodman LR, Warren MP. The female athlete and menstrual function. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct;17(5):466-70. Abstract

13. Caronia LM, Martin C, Welt CK, et al. A genetic basis for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 20;364(3):215-25.Full text  Abstract

14. Soni S, Badawy SZ. Celiac disease and its effect on human reproduction: a review. J Reprod Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):3-8. Abstract

15. Daniell HW. Opioid endocrinopathy in women consuming prescribed sustained-action opioids for control of nonmalignant pain. J Pain. 2008 Jan;9(1):28-36. Abstract

16. Wild RA, Carmina E, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, et al. Assessment of cardiovascular risk and prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome: a consensus statement by the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2038-49.Full text  Abstract

17. Brenner SH, Lessing JB, Quagliarello J, et al. Hyperprolactinemia and associated pituitary prolactinomas. Obstet Gynecol. 1985 May;65(5):661-4. Abstract

18. Groff TR, Shulkin BL, Utiger RD, et al. Amenorrhea-galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, and suprasellar pituitary enlargement as presenting features of primary hypothyroidism. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Mar;63(suppl 3):S86-9. Abstract

19. Legro RS, Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, et al; Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):4565-92.Full text  Abstract

20. Committee opinion no. 605: primary ovarian insufficiency in adolescents and young women. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jul;124(1):193-7.Full text  Abstract

21. Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Schulz KF, et al. Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD006033.Full text  Abstract

22. Kelesidis T, Kelesidis I, Chou S, et al. Narrative review: the role of leptin in human physiology: emerging clinical applications. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jan 19;152(2):93-100.Full text  Abstract

23. Chou SH, Chamberland JP, Liu X, et al. Leptin is an effective treatment for hypothalamic amenorrhea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 19;108(16):6585-90.Full text  Abstract

24. Moran LJ, Misso ML, Wild RA, Norman RJ. Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):347-63. Abstract

25. Nelson LM. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 5;360(6):606-14.Full text  Abstract

26. Wellons MF, Weeber KM, Rebar RW. Amenorrhea. In: Falcone T, Hurd WW, eds. Clinical reproductive medicine and surgery: a practical guide. 3rd ed. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2017:109-22.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer