Assessment of primary amenorrhoea

References

Key articles

Herman-Giddens ME, Slora EJ, Wasserman RC, et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network. Pediatrics. 1997;99:505-512. Abstract

Verp MS, Simpson JL. Abnormal sexual differentiation and neoplasia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987;25:191-218. Abstract

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25.Full text  Abstract

Caronia LM, Martin C, Welt CK, et al. A genetic basis for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:215-225. Abstract

Goodman LR, Warren MP. The female athlete and menstrual function. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;17:466-470. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Herman-Giddens ME, Slora EJ, Wasserman RC, et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network. Pediatrics. 1997;99:505-512. Abstract

2. Timmreck LS, Reindollar RH. Contemporary issues in primary amenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003;30:287-302. Abstract

3. Pettersson F, Fries H, Nillius SJ. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea: incidence and prevalence rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;117:80-86. Abstract

4. Verp MS, Simpson JL. Abnormal sexual differentiation and neoplasia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987;25:191-218. Abstract

5. Loret de Mola JR. Amenorrhea. In: Hurd WW, Falcone T, eds. Clinical reproductive medicine and surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:233-250.

6. Shroff R, Kerchner A, Maifeld M, et al. Young obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome have evidence of early coronary atherosclerosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4609-4614.Full text  Abstract

7. Reindollar RH, Novak M, Tho SP, et al. Adult-onset amenorrhea: a study of 262 patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986;155:531-543. Abstract

8. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25.Full text  Abstract

9. Caronia LM, Martin C, Welt CK, et al. A genetic basis for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:215-225. Abstract

10. Insler V. Gonadotropin therapy: new trends and insights. Int J Fertil. 1988;33:85-86,89-97. Abstract

11. Brenner SH, Lessing JB, Quagliarello J, et al. Hyperprolactinemia and associated pituitary prolactinomas. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;65:661-664. Abstract

12. Witchel SF. Puberty and polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;254-255:146-153. Abstract

13. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Headaches in over 12s: diagnosis and management. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

14. Bhagavath B, Layman LC. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Semin Reprod Med. 2007;25:272-286. Abstract

15. Goodman LR, Warren MP. The female athlete and menstrual function. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;17:466-470. Abstract

16. Turner HH. A syndrome of infantilism, congenital webbed neck, and cubitus valgus. Endocrinology. 1938;23:566. Abstract

17. Krassas GE, Pontikides N, Kaltsas T, et al. Disturbances of menstruation in hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;50:655-659. Abstract

18. Groff TR, Shulkin BL, Utiger RD, et al. Amenorrhea-galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, and suprasellar pituitary enlargement as presenting features of primary hypothyroidism. Obstet Gynecol. 1984;63(3 Suppl):86S-89S. Abstract

19. Richardson MR. Current perspectives in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Aug 15;68(4):697-704 Abstract

20. Govindarajan M, Rajan RS, Kalyanpur A, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2008;1:83-85.Full text  Abstract

21. Committee on Adolescent Health Care. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 728: Müllerian Agenesis: diagnosis, management, and treatment. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan;131(1):e35-e42. Abstract

22. Kelesidis T, Kelesidis I, Chou S, et al. Narrative review: the role of leptin in human physiology: emerging clinical applications. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:93-100. Abstract

23. Gibney J, Smith TP, McKenna TJ. The impact on clinical practice of routine screening for macroprolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul;90(7):3927-32.Full text  Abstract

24. Ehrmann DA, Barnes RB, Rosenfield RL, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jan;22(1):141-6. Abstract

25. Thong EP, Codner E, Laven JSE, et al. Diabetes: a metabolic and reproductive disorder in women. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Feb;8(2):134-49.Full text  Abstract

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