Last reviewed: 29 Oct 2021
Last updated: 24 Jun 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Community-acquired pneumonia (non-resolving)
  • Atypical pneumonia (non-resolving)
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia (non-resolving)
  • Empyema
  • Lung abscess
  • Lung cancer (metastatic)
  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Tuberculosis
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  • HIV (AIDS)
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (non-resolving)
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

Uncommon

  • Foreign body aspiration
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Organising pneumonia
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Scleroderma
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Polymyositis
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Asbestosis
  • Silicosis
  • Lymphoma and acute leukaemia
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
  • Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
  • Systemic vasculitis
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis)
  • Churg-Strauss syndrome
  • Allergic bronchopneumonic aspergillosis
  • Loeffler's syndrome
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonia (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)
  • Acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia
  • Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia
  • Drug-induced infiltrate
  • Cocaine abuse
  • Radiation pneumonitis
  • Amyloidosis
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Lipoid pneumonia
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

Contributors

Authors

Athanasia Pataka, MD

Respiratory Physician

Aristotle University

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

AP declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Athanasia Pataka would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Paraskevi Argyropoulou-Pataka, a previous contributor to this topic. PAP declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Cristine Radojicic, MD

Staff Physician

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

CR declares that she has no competing interests.

Mathina Darmalingam, MBChB, FCP

Clinical Lead in Respiratory Medicine

Whipps Cross University Hospital

NHS Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

MD declares that she has no competing interests.

Ioannis P. Kioumis, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor

Pulmonary Medicine and Infectious Diseases

Pulmonary Medicine Clinic

Aristotle University

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

IPK declares that he has no competing interests.

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