Inpatient glycaemic management

References

Key articles

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan;45(1 suppl):S1-264.Full text

Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2009 May-Jun;15(4):353-69. Abstract

Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88.Full text  Abstract

Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al; NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

Umpierrez G, Smiley D, Zisman A, et al. Randomized study of basal-bolus insulin therapy in the inpatient management of patients with type 2 diabetes (RABBIT 2 trial). Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep;30(9):2181-6.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan;45(1 suppl):S1-264.Full text

2. Diabetes Canada (Canadian Diabetes Association). Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

3. Umpierrez GE, Isaacs SD, Bazargan N, et al. Hyperglycemia: an independent marker of in-hospital mortality in patients with undiagnosed diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;87(3):978-82.Full text  Abstract

4. Fonseca V. Newly diagnosed diabetes/hyperglycemia in hospitals: what should we do? Endocr Pract. 2006 Jul-Aug;12 Suppl 3:108-11. Abstract

5. Levetan CS, Magee MF. Hospital management of diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000 Dec;29(4):745-70. Abstract

6. Finney SJ, Zekveld C, Elia A, et al. Glucose control and mortality in critically ill patients. JAMA. 2003 Oct 15;290(15):2041-7.Full text  Abstract

7. Inzucchi SE. Clinical practice: management of hyperglycemia in the hospital setting. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 2;355(18):1903-11. Abstract

8. Pasquel FJ, Smiley D, Spiegelman R, et al. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased hospital complications and mortality during parenteral nutrition. Hosp Pract (Minneap). 2011 Apr;39(2):81-8. Abstract

9. ACE/ADA Task Force on Inpatient Diabetes. American College of Endocrinology and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient diabetes and glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):458-68. Abstract

10. Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2009 May-Jun;15(4):353-69. Abstract

11. Korytkowski MT, Muniyappa R, Antinori-Lent K, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized adult patients in non-critical care cettings: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jul 14;107(8):2101-28.Full text  Abstract

12. Fonseca V. Clinical diabetes: translating research into practice. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2006.

13. Kornum JB, Thomsen RW, Riis A, et al. Diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of hospitalization with pneumonia: a population-based case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug;31(8):1541-5.Full text  Abstract

14. Kwon S, Hermayer KL. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia. Am J Med Sci. 2013 Apr;345(4):274-7. Abstract

15. Farrokhi F, Klindukhova O, Chandra P, et al. Risk factors for inpatient hypoglycemia during subcutaneous insulin therapy in non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012 Sep 1;6(5):1022-9.Full text  Abstract

16. Dabelea D, Rewers A, Stafford JM, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Trends in the prevalence of ketoacidosis at diabetes diagnosis: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e938-45.Full text  Abstract

17. Jones AG, Hattersley AT. The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2013 Jul;30(7):803-17.Full text  Abstract

18. Lampasona V, Petrone A, Tiberti C, et al; Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) Study Group. Zinc transporter 8 antibodies complement GAD and IA-2 antibodies in the identification and characterization of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) 4. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan;33(1):104-8.Full text  Abstract

19. Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, et al; National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Position statement executive summary: guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1419-23.Full text  Abstract

20. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88.Full text  Abstract

21. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1359-67.Full text  Abstract

22. Marik PE, Preiser JC. Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):544-51. Abstract

23. Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al; NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

24. Preiser JC, Devos P, Ruiz-Santana S, et al. A prospective randomised multi-centre controlled trial on tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy in adult intensive care units: the Glucontrol study. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Oct;35(10):1738-48. Abstract

25. van Kuijk JP, Schouten O, Flu WJ, et al. Perioperative blood glucose monitoring and control in major vascular surgery patients. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Nov;38(5):627-34. Abstract

26. Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ. Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):933-44.Full text  Abstract

27. Deedwania P, Kosiborod M, Barrett E, et al. Hyperglycemia and acute coronary syndrome: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Diabetes Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation. 2008 Mar 25;117(12):1610-9.Full text  Abstract

28. Inzucchi SE, Siegel MD. Glucose control in the ICU: how tight is too tight? New Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1346-9. Abstract

29. Moghissi ES. Addressing hyperglycemia from hospital admission to discharge. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Mar;26(3):589-98. Abstract

30. Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, Chou R, et al. Use of intensive insulin therapy for the management of glycemic control in hospitalized patients: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Feb 15;154(4):260-7.Full text  Abstract

31. Kansagara D, Fu R, Freeman M, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in hospitalized patients: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Feb 15;154(4):268-82.Full text  Abstract

32. Qaseem A, Chou R, Humphrey LL, et al. Inpatient glycemic control: best practice advice from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Am J Med Qual. 2014 Mar-Apr;29(2):95-8. Abstract

33. Kao LS, Meeks D, Moyer VA, et al. Peri-operative glycaemic control regimens for preventing surgical site infections in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD006806.Full text  Abstract

34. Liu Y, Yang YM, Zhu J, et al. Prognostic significance of hemoglobin A1c level in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011 Nov 10;10:98.Full text  Abstract

35. Vergès B, Avignon A, Bonnet F, et al; Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Study Group of the Société Francophone du Diabète (SFD), Société Française de Cardiologie (SFC). Consensus statement on the care of the hyperglycaemic/diabetic patient during and in the immediate follow-up of acute coronary syndrome. Diabetes Metab. 2012 Apr;38(2):113-27. Abstract

36. Bielen I, Sruk A, Zalac D. Specificity of hyperglycemia treatment in acute stroke patients. Acta Med Croatica. 2008 Jul;62(3):273-80. Abstract

37. Ooi YC, Dagi TF, Maltenfort M, et al. Tight glycemic control reduces infection and improves neurological outcome in critically ill neurosurgical and neurological patients. Neurosurgery. 2012 Sep;71(3):692-702. Abstract

38. Gilo Arrojo F, Herrera Muñoz A, Anciones Rodríguez B. Recommendations for an adequate glycemic control during hospitalization after a stroke episode [in Spanish]. Avances en Diabetologia. 2010 Sep 12;26:408-13.Full text

39. Ellger B, Westphal M, Stubbe HD, et al. Glycemic control in sepsis and septic shock: friend or foe? [in German]. Anaesthesist. 2008 Jan;57(1):43-8. Abstract

40. Umpierrez G, Smiley D, Zisman A, et al. Randomized study of basal-bolus insulin therapy in the inpatient management of patients with type 2 diabetes (RABBIT 2 trial). Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep;30(9):2181-6.Full text  Abstract

41. Umpierrez GE, Smiley D, Jacobs S, et al. Randomized study of basal-bolus insulin therapy in the inpatient management of patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing general surgery (RABBIT 2 surgery). Diabetes Care. 2011 Feb;34(2):256-61.Full text  Abstract

42. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Khowaja A, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing glargine U300 and glargine U100 for the inpatient management of medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes: Glargine U300 hospital trial. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jun;43(6):1242-8.Full text  Abstract

43. Suzuki J, Yamakawa T, Oba M, et al. Efficacy and safety of insulin degludec U100 and insulin glargine U100 in combination with meal-time bolus insulin in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes: an open-label, randomized controlled study. Endocr J. 2019 Nov 28;66(11):971-82.Full text  Abstract

44. Umpierrez GE, Smiley D, Hermayer K, et al. Randomized study comparing a basal-bolus with a basal plus correction insulin regimen for the hospital management of medical and surgical patients with type 2 diabetes: Basal Plus trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug;36(8):2169-74.Full text  Abstract

45. Vellanki P, Bean R, Oyedokun FA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of insulin supplementation for correction of bedtime hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015 Apr;38(4):568-74.Full text  Abstract

46. Svensson AM, McGuire DK, Abrahamsson P, et al. Association between hyper- and hypoglycemia and 2 year all-cause mortality risk in diabetic patients with acute coronary events. Eur Heart J. 2005 Jul;26(13):1255-61.Full text  Abstract

47. Dumont C, Bourguignon C. Effect of a computerized insulin dose calculator on the process of glycemic control. Am J Crit Care. 2012 Mar;21(2):106-15. Abstract

48. Steil GM, Langer M, Jaeger K, et al. Value of continuous glucose monitoring for minimizing severe hypoglycemia during tight glycemic control. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Nov;12(6):643-8.Full text  Abstract

49. Klonoff DC. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill hospitalized patients: making it safe and effective. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011 May 1;5(3):755-67.Full text  Abstract

50. Goldberg PA, Siegel MD, Sherwin RS, et al. Implementation of a safe and effective insulin infusion protocol in a medical intensive care unit. Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb;27(2):461-7.Full text  Abstract

51. Adams G, Hunter J, Langley J, et al. Is nurse-managed blood glucose control in critical care as safe and effective as the traditional sliding scale method? Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2009 Dec;25(6):294-305. Abstract

52. Pinelli NR, Jones MC, Monday LM, et al. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 for hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Jan;46(1):124-9. Abstract

53. Thiruvenkatarajan V, Meyer EJ, Nanjappa N, et al. Perioperative diabetic ketoacidosis associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth. 2019 Jul;123(1):27-36.Full text  Abstract

54. Pasquel FJ, Gianchandani R, Rubin DJ, et al. Efficacy of sitagliptin for the hospital management of general medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes (Sita-Hospital): a multicentre, prospective, open-label, non-inferiority randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Feb;5(2):125-33. Abstract

55. Garg R, Schuman B, Hurwitz S, et al. Safety and efficacy of saxagliptin for glycemic control in non-critically ill hospitalized patients. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017 Mar 29;5(1):e000394.Full text  Abstract

56. Vellanki P, Rasouli N, Baldwin D, et al. Glycaemic efficacy and safety of linagliptin compared to a basal-bolus insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing non-cardiac surgery: a multicentre randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Apr;21(4):837-43. Abstract

57. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. 4th ed. Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

58. Agus MS, Steil GM, Wypij D, et al; SPECS Study Investigators. Tight glycemic control versus standard care after pediatric cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 27;367(13):1208-19.Full text  Abstract

59. Agus MS, Wypij D, Hirshberg EL, et al; HALF-PINT Study Investigators and the PALISI Network. Tight glycemic control in critically ill children. N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 23;376(8):729-41.Full text  Abstract

60. Rickels MR, Ruedy KJ, Foster NC, et al; T1D Exchange Intranasal Glucagon Investigators. Intranasal glucagon for treatment of insulin-induced hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover noninferiority study. Diabetes Care. 2016 Feb;39(2):264-70.Full text  Abstract

61. Christiansen MP, Cummins MJ, Prestrelski SJ, et al. A phase 3 comparison of a novel liquid glucagon autoinjector to glucagon emergency kit for the symptomatic relief of severe hypoglycemia. Paper presented at: American Diabetes Association 78th Scientific Sessions. 22-26 Jun 2018. Orlando, Florida, US. Oral presentations: clinical diabetes/therapeutics. Diabetes. 2018 Jul; 67(Supplement 1):304-OR.Full text

62. Singh LG, Satyarengga M, Marcano I, et al. Reducing inpatient hypoglycemia in the general wards using real-time continuous glucose monitoring: the glucose telemetry system, a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2020 Nov;43(11):2736-43.Full text  Abstract

63. Perez-Guzman MC, Shang T, Zhang JY, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in the hospital. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2021 Apr;36(2):240-55.Full text  Abstract

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