Assessment of acute motor deficit

References

Key articles

Gallego J, Munoz R, Martinez-Vila E. Emergent cerebrovascular disease risk factor weighting: is transient ischemic attack an imminent threat? Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Apr;27(suppl 1):S88-96. Abstract

Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2002.

Reference articles

1. Förster A, Griebe M, Wolf ME, et al. How to identify stroke mimics in patients eligible for intravenous thrombolysis? J Neurol. 2012 Jul;259(7):1347-53. Abstract

2. Asan Z. Spinal concussion in adults: transient neuropraxia of spinal cord exposed to vertical forces. World Neurosurg. 2018 Jun;114:e1284-9.Full text  Abstract

3. Dimachkie MM, Barohn RJ. Guillain-Barré syndrome and variants. Neurol Clin. 2013 May;31(2):491-510.Full text  Abstract

4. Nayak L, Lee EQ, Wen PY. Epidemiology of brain metastases. Curr Oncol Rep. 2012 Feb;14(1):48-54.Full text  Abstract

5. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 guidelines for the early management of acute ischemic stroke: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019 Dec;50(12):e344-e418.Full text  Abstract

6. Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, et al. ECASS Investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 25;359(13):1317-29.Full text  Abstract

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management. April 2022 [internet publication].Full text

8. Rodrigues FB, Neves JB, Caldeira D, at al. Endovascular treatment versus medical care alone for ischaemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016 Apr 18;353:i1754.Full text  Abstract

9. Sames TA, Storrow AB, Finkelstein JA, et al. Sensitivity of new-generation computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acad Emerg Med. 1996 Jan;3(1):16-20.Full text  Abstract

10. Perry JJ, Stiell IG, Sivilotti ML, et al. Sensitivity of computed tomography performed within six hours of onset of headache for diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2011 Jul 18;343:d4277.Full text  Abstract

11. Backes D, Rinkel GJ, Kemperman H, et al. Time-dependent test characteristics of head computed tomography in patients suspected of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2012 Aug;43(8):2115-9.Full text  Abstract

12. Dubosh NM, Bellolio MF, Rabinstein AA, et al. Sensitivity of early brain computed tomography to exclude aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2016 Mar;47(3):750-5.Full text  Abstract

13. Gajdos P, Chevret S, Toyka KV. Intravenous immunoglobulin for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12(12):CD002277.Full text  Abstract

14. Makarious D, Horwood K, Coward JIG. Myasthenia gravis: an emerging toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Eur J Cancer. 2017 Sep;82:128-36. Abstract

15. Le Quintrec JS, Le Quintrec JL. Drug-induced myopathies. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1991 Apr;5(1):21-38. Abstract

16. Dalakas MC. Toxic and drug-induced myopathies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Aug;80(8):832-8.Full text  Abstract

17. Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig's sign, Brudzinski's sign, and nuchal rigidity in adults with suspected meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):46-52.Full text  Abstract

18. Luzzani A, Polati E, Dorizzi R, et al. Comparison of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2003 Jun;31(6):1737-41. Abstract

19. Schuetz P, Christ-Crain M, Müller B. Procalcitonin and other biomarkers for the assessment of disease severity and guidance of treatment in bacterial infections. Jan 2008 [internet publication].Full text

20. Yealy DM, Fine MJ. Measurement of serum procalcitonin: a step closer to tailored care for respiratory infections? JAMA. 2009 Sep 9;302(10):1115-6. Abstract

21. Meisner M, Tschaikowsky K, Palmaers T, et al. Comparison of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma concentrations at different SOFA scores during the course of sepsis and MODS. Crit Care. 1999;3(1):45-50.Full text  Abstract

22. Greenberg SM, Ziai WC, Cordonnier C, et al. 2022 Guideline for the management of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2022 Jul;53(7):e282-361.Full text  Abstract

23. Lavi R, Yarnitsky D, Rowe JM, et al. Standard vs atraumatic Whitacre needle for diagnostic lumbar puncture: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1492-4. Abstract

24. Arendt K, Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM, Camann W. Atraumatic lumbar puncture needles: after all these years, are we still missing the point? Neurologist. 2009 Jan;15(1):17-20. Abstract

25. Nath S, Koziarz A, Badhiwala JH, et al. Atraumatic versus conventional lumbar puncture needles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Mar 24;391(10126):1197-204. Abstract

26. Rochwerg B, Almenawer SA, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 May 22;361:k1920.Full text  Abstract

27. Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E. Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Nov;82(973):713-6.Full text  Abstract

28. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 7;(3):CD009199.Full text  Abstract

29. National Institutes of Health. NIH stroke scale. Nov 2011 [internet publication].Full text

30. Feldmann E, Broderick JP, Kernan WN, et al. Major risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in the young are modifiable. Stroke. 2005 Sep;36(9):1881-5.Full text  Abstract

31. Brott T, Thalinger K, Hertzberg V. Hypertension as a risk factor for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1986 Nov-Dec;17(6):1078-83.Full text  Abstract

32. Fazekas F, Niederkorn K, Ebner F, et al. Relevance of neuroimaging in the evaluation of cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Apr;27(suppl 1):S1-8. Abstract

33. Marks MP. CT in ischemic stroke. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1998 Aug;8(3):515-23. Abstract

34. Schramm P, Schellinger PD, Klotz E, et al. Comparison of perfusion computed tomography and computed tomography angiography source images with perfusion-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with acute stroke of less than 6 hours' duration. Stroke. 2004 Jul;35(7):1652-8.Full text  Abstract

35. Gallego J, Munoz R, Martinez-Vila E. Emergent cerebrovascular disease risk factor weighting: is transient ischemic attack an imminent threat? Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Apr;27(suppl 1):S88-96. Abstract

36. Schaefer PW, Romero JM, Grant PE, et al. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Semin Roentgenol. 2002 Jul;37(3):219-29. Abstract

37. Hylek EM, Singer DE. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in outpatients taking warfarin. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Jun 1;120(11):897-902. Abstract

38. Catanzaro JN, Meraj PM, Zheng S, et al. Electrocardiographic T-wave changes underlying acute cardiac and cerebral events. Am J Emerg Med. 2008 Jul;26(6):716-20. Abstract

39. McCarron MO, Alberts MJ, McCarron P. A systematic review of Terson's syndrome: frequency and prognosis after subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;75(3):491-3.Full text  Abstract

40. Clayman GL, Adams GL, Paugh DR, et al. Intracranial complications of paranasal sinusitis: a combined institutional review. Laryngoscope. 1991 Mar;101(3):234-9. Abstract

41. Gallagher RM, Gross CW, Phillips CD. Suppurative intracranial complications of sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 1998 Nov;108(11 Pt 1):1635-42. Abstract

42. Rosenfeld EA, Rowley AH. Infectious intracranial complications of sinusitis, other than meningitis, in children: 12-year review. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 May;18(5):750-4. Abstract

43. Younis RT, Anand VK, Davidson B. The role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with sinusitis with complications. Laryngoscope. 2002 Feb;112(2):224-9. Abstract

44. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 2011 Feb;69(2):292-302. Abstract

45. Thompson AJ, Banwell BL, Barkhof F, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Feb;17(2):162-73. Abstract

46. Freedman MS, Thompson EJ, Deisenhammer F, et al. Recommended standard of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: a consensus statement. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):865-70.Full text  Abstract

47. Winer JB. Treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome. QJM. 2002 Nov;95(11):717-21.Full text  Abstract

48. Seneviratne U. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Postgrad Med J. 2000 Dec;76(902):774-82.Full text  Abstract

49. Winer JB. Guillain Barre syndrome. Mol Pathol. 2001 Dec;54(6):381-5.Full text  Abstract

50. Duna G, Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system. In: Kalimo H, ed. Pathology and genetics, cerebrovascular diseases. Basel, Switzerland: ISN Neuropath Press; 2005:147-51.

51. Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system. In: Rheumatology. 4th ed. Hochberg M, Silman A, Smolen J, et al, eds. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2005.

52. Aviv RI, Benseler SM, Silverman ED, et al. MR imaging and angiography of primary CNS vasculitis of childhood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Jan;27(1):192-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Berman M, Feldman S, Alter M, et al. Acute transverse myelitis: incidence and etiologic considerations. Neurology. 1981 Aug;31(8):966-71. Abstract

54. Murthy JM, Reddy JJ, Meena AK, et al. Acute transverse myelitis: MR characteristics. Neurol India. 1999 Dec;47(4):290-3.Full text  Abstract

55. Bayas A, Gold R. Diagnostic principles in myopathies. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2003 Feb;71(2):61-6. Abstract

56. Amato AA, Barohn RJ. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Neurol Clin. 1997 Aug;15(3):615-48. Abstract

57. Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (first of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1975 Feb 13;292(7):344-7. Abstract

58. Lehmann-Horn F, Jurkat-Rott K, Rudel R, et al. Diagnostics and therapy of muscle channelopathies: guidelines of the Ulm Muscle Center. Acta Myol. 2008 Dec;27(3):98-113. Abstract

59. Cherian A, Baheti NN, Kuruvilla A. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008 Jan;11(1):20-7.Full text

60. Khan NA, Khan AU, Hasan MI, et al. Clinical profile of periodic paralysis. Mymensingh Med J. 2012 Jan;21(1):28-33.Full text  Abstract

61. Dachowski LJ, DeLaney TF. Photodynamic therapy: the NCI experience and its nursing implications. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1992 Jan-Feb;19(1):63-7. Abstract

62. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis fact sheet. Jun 2013 [internet publication].Full text

63. Brooks BR. El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 1994 Jul;124(suppl):96-107. Abstract

64. Mitsumoto H, Chad DA, Pioro EP. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In: Contemporary neurology series, 49. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company; 1998.

65. Harrington TM, Cohen MD, Bartleson JD, et al. Elevation of creatine kinase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: potential confusion with polymyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1983 Feb;26(2):201-5. Abstract

66. Dziewas R, Warnecke T, Schnabel M, et al. Neuroleptic-induced dysphagia: case report and literature review. Dysphagia. 2007 Jan;22(1):63-7. Abstract

67. Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2002.

68. Potteiger JA, Carper MJ, Randall JC, et al. Changes in lower leg anterior compartment pressure before, during, and after creatine supplementation. J Athl Train. 2002 Jun;37(2):157-63.Full text  Abstract

69. Owen CA, Mubarak SJ, Hargens AR, et al. Intramuscular pressures with limb compression clarification of the pathogenesis of the drug-induced muscle-compartment syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1979 May 24;300(21):1169-72. Abstract

70. Howe FA, Opstad KS. 1H MR spectroscopy of brain tumours and masses. NMR Biomed. 2003 May;16(3):123-31. Abstract

71. Usenius JP, Kauppinen RA, Vainio PA, et al. Quantitative metabolite patterns of human brain tumors: detection by 1H NMR spectroscopy in vivo and in vitro. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1994 Sep;18(5):705-13. Abstract

72. Hallmayer J, Faraco J, Lin L, et al. Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus. Nat Genet. 2009 Jun;41(6):708-11. Abstract

73. Hersen M, Turner SM, Beidel DC, eds. Adult psychopathology and diagnosis. 5th ed. Wiley; 2007;380.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer