Last reviewed: 2 Jul 2021
Last updated: 27 Apr 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Transient ischaemic attack
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Haemorrhagic stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Focal nerve palsy
  • Todd's paresis (postictal paralysis)
  • Sleep disorders

Uncommon

  • Subdural haematoma
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
  • Haematomyelia
  • Thoracolumbar spine trauma
  • Cervical spine trauma
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain abscess
  • Coxsackievirus
  • West Nile virus (WNV)
  • Diphtheria
  • Poliovirus
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG)
  • Vasculitis
  • Transverse myelitis (TM)
  • Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy
  • Acute hypokalaemia
  • Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)
  • Periodic paralysis
  • Amyotrophic lateral syndrome
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Common hereditary lysosomal storage diseases
  • Type 1 glycogen storage disease (GSD I)
  • Drug-induced myopathies
  • Drug-induced neuropathy
  • Toxin-induced dysfunction
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Brain tumour
  • Spinal cord compression
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Bell's palsy

Contributors

Authors

Kenneth F. Casey, MD, FACS
Kenneth F. Casey

Clinical Associate Professor PM&R

Wayne State University School of Medicine

Detroit

MI

Disclosures

KFC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Cory Toth, BSc, MD, FRCP(C)

Assistant Professor of Neurosciences

Hotchkiss Brain Institute

University of Calgary

Alberta

Canada

Disclosures

CT declares that he has no competing interests.

Sabrina Ravaglia, MD, PhD

Staff Physician

Department of Neurological Sciences

Institute of Neurology C. Mondino

Pavia

Italy

Disclosures

SR declares that she has no competing interests.

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