Medullary sponge kidney

Last reviewed: 18 Apr 2022
Last updated: 06 Sep 2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • previous nephrolithiasis
  • flank pain
  • haematuria
  • costovertebral angle tenderness
  • dysuria
  • urinary urgency
  • increased frequency of urination
  • groin pain
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • hemi-hypertrophy
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann's syndrome
  • Caroli's disease
  • congenital hepatic fibrosis
  • Ehlers-Danlos' syndrome
  • family history of polycystic kidney disease
  • chronic kidney disease
  • hypercalciuria
  • female sex
  • hyperparathyroidism
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urinalysis
  • urine culture
  • urea and creatinine
  • serum electrolytes
  • abdominal radiography
  • renal ultrasound
  • intravenous urography (IVU)
  • non-contrast CT scan
  • CT urogram
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • 24-hour urine monitoring
  • stone analysis
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

with urinary tract infection (UTI)

with nephrolithiasis

Contributors

Authors

Michael J. Choi, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Clinical Director of Nephrology

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

MJC declares that he has no competing interests.

David S. Goldfarb, MD

Clinical Chief

Division of Nephrology

New York University School of Medicine

New York VA Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

DSG declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Michael J. Choi and Dr David S. Goldfarb would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Amaka Edeani, a previous contributor to this monograph. AE declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Khashayar Sakhaee, MD

Internal Medicine Physician

UT Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

KS declares that he has no competing interests.

Eric N. Taylor, MD, MSc

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Renal Division

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Channing Laboratory

Boston

MA

Disclosures

ENT declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Medullary sponge kidney images
  • Differentials

    • Distal renal tubular acidosis
    • Renal papillary necrosis
    • Tuberculosis of kidney
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • Guidelines on urolithiasis
    • Surgical management of stones: AUA/Endourological Society guideline
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Kidney stones

    More Patient leaflets
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