Oral candidiasis


Key articles

National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. Sep 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Neville BA, Damm DD, Allen CM, et al. Fungal and protozoal diseases. In: Oral & maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2015.

2. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. The periodontal health of homosexual men with HIV infection: a controlled study. Oral Dis. 1996 Mar;2(1):45-52. Abstract

3. Robinson PG, Sheiham A, Challacombe SJ, et al. Periodontal health and HIV infection. Oral Dis. 1997 May;3(suppl 1):S149-52. Abstract

4. Lamster IB, Grbic JT, Mitchell-Lewis DA, et al. New concepts regarding pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV infection. Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):62-75. Abstract

5. Velegraki A, Nicolatou O, Theodoridou M, et al. Pediatric AIDS-related linear gingival erythema: a form of erythematous candidiasis? J Oral Pathol Med. 1999 Apr;28(4):178-82. Abstract

6. Daniluk T, Tokajuk G, Stokowska W, et al. Occurrence rate of oral Candida albicans in denture wearer patients. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51(suppl 1):77-80. Abstract

7. Lyon JP, da Costa SC, Totti VM, et al. Predisposing conditions for Candida spp. carriage in the oral cavity of denture wearers and individuals with natural teeth. Can J Microbiol. 2006 May;52(5):462-7. Abstract

8. Rozkiewicz D, Daniluk T, Zaremba ML,et al. Oral Candida albicans carriage in healthy preschool and school children. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51(suppl 1):187-90. Abstract

9. Stokman MA, Spijkervet FK, Burlage FR,et al. Oral mucositis and selective elimination of oral flora in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a double-blind randomised clinical trial. Br J Cancer. 2003 Apr 7;88(7):1012-6.Full text  Abstract

10. Tapper-Jones LM, Aldred MJ, Walker DM, et al. Candidal infections and populations of Candida albicans in mouths of diabetics. J Clin Pathol. 1981 Jul;34(7):706-11.Full text  Abstract

11. Campisi G, Pizzo G, Milici ME, et al. Candidal carriage in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Mar;93(3):281-6. Abstract

12. Erkose G, Erturan Z. Oral Candida colonization of human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects in Turkey and its relation with viral load and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. Mycoses. 2007 Nov;50(6):485-90. Abstract

13. Reichart PA. Oral manifestations in HIV infection: fungal and bacterial infections, Kaposi's sarcoma. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003 Aug;192(3):165-9. Abstract

14. Soysa NS, Samaranayake LP, Ellepola AN. Cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy and oral candidiasis. Oral Oncol. 2004 Nov;40(10):971-8. Abstract

15. Ship JA, Vissink A, Challacombe SJ. Use of prophylactic antifungals in the immunocompromised host. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007 Mar;103(suppl 6):e1-14. Abstract

16. Patton LL, McKaig R, Stauss R, et al. Changing prevalence of oral manifestations of human immuno-deficiency virus in the era of protease inhibitor therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Mar;89(3):299-304. Abstract

17. National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. Sep 2022 [internet publication].Full text

18. Patel PK, Erlandsen JE, Kirkpatrick WR, et al. The changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with HIV/AIDS in the era of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Treat. 2012;2012:262471.Full text  Abstract

19. Gottfredsson M, Cox GM, Indridason OS, et al. Association of plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and oropharyngeal Candida colonization. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):534-7.Full text  Abstract

20. Korting, HC, Schaller M, Eder G, et al. Effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitors saquinavir and indinavir on in vitro activities of secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans isolates from HIV-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Aug;43(8):2038-42.Full text  Abstract

21. de Repentigny L, Lewandowski D, Jolicoeur. Immunopathogenesis of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):729-59.Full text  Abstract

22. Hellstein JW, Marek CL. Candidiasis: red and white manifestations in the oral cavity. Head Neck Pathol. 2019 Mar;13(1):25-32.Full text  Abstract

23. Whaley SG, Berkow EL, Rybak JM, et al. Azole antifungal resistance in Candida albicans and emerging non-albicans candida species. Front Microbiol. 2017 Jan 12;7:2173.Full text  Abstract

24. Reichart PA, Philipsen HP, Schmidt-Westhausen A, et al. Pseudomembranous candidiasis in HIV infection: ultrastructural findings. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995 Jul;24(6):276-81. Abstract

25. Sherwood J, Gow NA, Gooday GW, et al. Contact sensing in Candida albicans: a possible aid to epithelial penetration. J Med Vet Mycol. 1992;30(6):461-9. Abstract

26. Spellberg B, Edwards JE Jr. Type 1/type 2 immunity in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jan;32(1):76-102.Full text  Abstract

27. Wozniak KL, Leigh JE, Hager S,et al. A comprehensive study of Candida-specific antibodies in the saliva of human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with oropharyngeal candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 1;185(9):1269-76.Full text  Abstract

28. Schaller M, Mailhammer R, Korting HC. Cytokine expression induced by Candida albicans in a model of cutaneous candidosis based on reconstituted human epidermis. J Med Microbiol. 2002 Aug;51(8):672-6.Full text  Abstract

29. Grone A. Keratinocytes and cytokines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002 Sep 6;88(1-2):1-12. Abstract

30. Farah CS, Elahi S, Pang G, et al. T cells augment monocyte and neutrophil function in host resistance against oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infect Immun. 2001 Oct;69(10):6110-8.Full text  Abstract

31. Fanello S, Bouchara JP, Sauteron M, et al. Predictive value of oral colonization by Candida yeasts for the onset of a nosocomial infection in elderly hospitalized patients. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Feb;55(Pt 2):223-8.Full text  Abstract

32. Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J. 2002 Aug;78(922):455-9.Full text  Abstract

33. Emami, E, Taraf, H, de, Grandmont P, et al. The association of denture stomatitis and partial removable dental prostheses: a systematic review. Int J Prosthodont. 2012 Mar-Apr;25(2):113-9. Abstract

34. Matee MI, Simon E, Christensen MF, et al. Association between carriage of oral yeasts and malnutrition among Tanzanian infants aged 6-24 months. Oral Dis. 1995 Mar;1(1):37-42. Abstract

35. Jabra-Rizk MA, Falkler WA Jr, Enwonwu CO, et al. Prevalence of yeast among children in Nigeria and the United States. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2001 Dec;16(6):383-5. Abstract

36. Paillaud E, Merlier I, Dupeyron C, et al. Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients. Br J Nutr. 2004 Nov;92(5):861-7. Abstract

37. Davies AN, Brailsford SR, Beighton D. Oral candidosis in patients with advanced cancer. Oral Oncol. 2006 Aug;42(7):698-702. Abstract

38. Phelan JA, Begg MD, Lamster IB, et al. Oral candidiasis in HIV infection: predictive value and comparison of findings in injecting drug users and homosexual men. J Oral Pathol Med. 1997 May;26(5):237-43. Abstract

39. Takasawa H, Takahashi Y, Abe M, et al. An elderly case of type 2 diabetes which developed in association with oral and esophageal candidiasis. Intern Med. 2007;46(7):387-90.Full text  Abstract

40. Gulec AT, Demirbilek M, Seçkin D, et al. Superficial fungal infections in 102 renal transplant recipients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Aug;49(2):187-92. Abstract

41. Sarifakioglu E, Gunduz C, Gorpelioglu C. Oral mucosa manifestations in 100 pregnant versus non-pregnant patients: an epidemiological observational study. Eur J Dermatol. 2006 Nov-Dec;16(6):674-6. Abstract

42. Myllarniemi S, Perheentupa J. Oral findings in the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidosis syndrome (APECS) and other forms of hypoparathyroidism. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1978 May;45(5):721-9. Abstract

43. Walls AW, Soames JV. Dental manifestations of autoimmune hypoparathyroidism. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993 Apr;75(4):452-4. Abstract

44. Clarkson JE, Worthington HV, Eden OB. Interventions for preventing oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD003807.Full text  Abstract

45. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Khalid T, et al. Interventions for treating oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr 18;(7):CD001972.Full text  Abstract

46. Lalla RV, Latortue MC, Hong CH, et al; Fungal Infections Section, Oral Care Study Group, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO). A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy. Support Care Cancer. 2010 Aug;18(8):985-92.Full text  Abstract

47. Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 16;332(11):700-5.Full text  Abstract

48. Patton LL, Bonito AJ, Shugars DA. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antifungal drugs for the prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Aug;92(2):170-9. Abstract

49. Havlir DV, Dube MP, McCutchan JA, et al. Prophylaxis with weekly versus daily fluconazole for fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Dec;27(6):1369-75.Full text  Abstract

50. MacPhail LA, Hilton JF, Dodd CL, et al. Prophylaxis with nystatin pastilles for HIV-associated oral candidiasis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 Aug 15;12(5):470-6. Abstract

51. Pienaar ED, Young T, Holmes H. Interventions for the prevention and management of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with HIV infection in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD003940.Full text  Abstract

52. Austin N, Cleminson J, Darlow BA, et al. Prophylactic oral/topical non-absorbed antifungal agents to prevent invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 24;(10):CD003478.Full text  Abstract

53. Epstein JB, Pearsall NN, Truelove EL. Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Sep;12(3):475-6.Full text  Abstract

54. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

55. Lopez-Dupla M, Mora Sanz P, Pintado Garcia V, et al. Clinical, endoscopic, immunologic, and therapeutic aspects of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a survey of 114 cases. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992 Dec;87(12):1771-6. Abstract

56. Raufman JP. Odynophagia/dysphagia in AIDS. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1988 Sep;17(3):599-614. Abstract

57. Meiller TF, Kelley JI, Jabra-Rizk MA, et al. In vitro studies of the efficacy of antimicrobials against fungi. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Jun;91(6):663-70. Abstract

58. de Souza RF, de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos H, Lovato da Silva CH, et al. Interventions for cleaning dentures in adults. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD007395.Full text  Abstract

59. Felton D, Cooper L, Duqum I, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the care and maintenance of complete dentures: a publication of the American College of Prosthodontists. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011 Feb;142(suppl 1):1S-20S.Full text  Abstract

60. Brondani, MA, Samim, F, Feng, H. A conventional microwave oven for denture cleaning: a critical review. Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e6-15.Full text  Abstract

61. Reznik DA. Oral manifestations of HIV disease. Top HIV Med. 2005 Dec-2006 Jan;13(5):143-8.Full text  Abstract

62. Rachwalski EJ, Wieczorkiewicz JT, Scheetz MH. Posaconazole: an oral triazole with an extended spectrum of activity. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct;42(10):1429-38. Abstract

63. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Press release: Oral ketoconazole-containing medicines should no longer be used for fungal infections. 26 July 2013 [internet publication].Full text

64. European Medicines Agency. European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of marketing authorisations for oral ketoconazole. 26 July 2013 [internet publication].Full text

65. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns that prescribing of Nizoral (ketoconazole) oral tablets for unapproved uses including skin and nail infections continues; linked to patient death. May 2016 [internet publication].Full text

66. Jokela JA, Kaur P. Caspofungin-resistant oral and esophageal candidiasis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS. 2007 Jan 2;21(1):118-9. Abstract

67. Hakki M, Staab JF, Marr KA. Emergence of a Candida krusei isolate with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin during therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jul;50(7):2522-4.Full text  Abstract

68. Goldman M, Cloud GA, Wade KD, et al. A randomized study of the use of fluconazole in continuous versus episodic therapy in patients with advanced HIV infection and a history of oropharyngeal candidiasis: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 323/Mycoses Study Group Study 40. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15;41(10):1473-80.Full text  Abstract

69. Furuno JP, Tallman GB, Noble BN, et al. Clinical outcomes of oral suspension versus delayed-release tablet formulations of posaconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Oct;62(10):e00893-18.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer