Malignant hyperthermia

References

Key articles

Hopkins PM, Girard T, Dalay S, et al. Malignant hyperthermia 2020: guideline from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2021 May;76(5):655-64.Full text  Abstract

Larach MG, Dirksen SJ, Belani KG, et al; Society for Ambulatory Anesthesiology; Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States; Ambulatory Surgery Foundation; Society for Academic Emergency Medicine; National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Special article: Creation of a guide for the transfer of care of the malignant hyperthermia patient from ambulatory surgery centers to receiving hospital facilities. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:94-100.Full text  Abstract

Larach MG, Localio AR, Allen GC, et al. A clinical grading scale to predict MH susceptibility. Anesthesiology. 1994 Apr;80(4):771-9. Abstract

Hopkins PM, Rüffert H, Snoeck MM, et al. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Br J Anaesth. 2015 Oct;115(4):531-9.Full text  Abstract

Rüffert H, Bastian B, Bendixen D, et al. Consensus guidelines on perioperative management of malignant hyperthermia suspected or susceptible patients from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Br J Anaesth. 2021 Jan;126(1):120-30.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Hopkins PM, Girard T, Dalay S, et al. Malignant hyperthermia 2020: guideline from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2021 May;76(5):655-64.Full text  Abstract

2. Larach MG, Dirksen SJ, Belani KG, et al; Society for Ambulatory Anesthesiology; Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States; Ambulatory Surgery Foundation; Society for Academic Emergency Medicine; National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Special article: Creation of a guide for the transfer of care of the malignant hyperthermia patient from ambulatory surgery centers to receiving hospital facilities. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:94-100.Full text  Abstract

3. Sagui E, Montigon C, Abriat A, et al. Is there a link between exertional heat stroke and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia? PLoS One. 2015 Aug 10;10(8):e0135496.Full text  Abstract

4. Litman RS, Flood CD, Kaplan RF, et al. Postoperative malignant hyperthermia: an analysis of cases from the North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry. Anesthesiology. 2008 Nov;109(5):825-9. Abstract

5. Riazi S, Larach MG, Hu C, et al. Malignant hyperthermia in Canada: characteristics of index anesthetics in 129 malignant hyperthermia susceptible probands. Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):381-7. Abstract

6. Larach MG, Gronert GA, Allen GC, et al. Clinical presentation, treatment, and complications of malignant hyperthermia in North America from 1987 to 2006. Anesth Analg. 2010 Feb 1;110(2):498-507.Full text  Abstract

7. Rosenberg H, Pollock N, Schiemann A, et al. Malignant hyperthermia: a review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2015 Aug 4;10:93.Full text  Abstract

8. Tobin JR, Jason DR, Challa VR, et al. Malignant hyperthermia and apparent heat stroke. JAMA. 2001 Jul 11;286(2):168-9. Abstract

9. Lavezzi WA, Capacchione JF, Muldoon SM, et al. Case report: death in the emergency department: an unrecognized awake malignant hyperthermia-like reaction in a six-year-old. Anesth Analg. 2013 Feb;116(2):420-3. Abstract

10. Parness J. Hot on the trail of "I know it when I see it!". Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):243-6. Abstract

11. Davis M, Brown R, Dickson A, et al. Malignant hyperthermia associated with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis or congenital abnormalities and a novel RYR1 mutation in New Zealand and Australian pedigrees. Br J Anaesth. 2002 Apr;88(4):508-15.Full text  Abstract

12. Groom L, Muldoon SM, Tang ZZ, et al. Identical de novo mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor gene associated with fatal, stress-induced malignant hyperthermia in two unrelated families. Anesthesiology. 2011 Nov;115(5):938-45. Abstract

13. Brown RL, Pollock AN, Couchman KG, et al. A novel ryanodine receptor mutation and genotype-phenotype correlation in a large malignant hyperthermia New Zealand Maori pedigree. Hum Mol Genet. 2000 Jun 12;9(10):1515-24.Full text  Abstract

14. Brandom BW, Muldoon SM. Unexpected MH deaths without exposure to inhalation anesthetics in pediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Sep;23(9):851-4. Abstract

15. Chamley D, Pollock NA, Stowell KM, et al. Malignant hyperthermia in infancy and identification of novel RYR1 mutation. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Apr;84(4):500-4.Full text  Abstract

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17. Monnier N, Krivosic-Horber R, Payen JF, et al. Presence of two different genetic traits in malignant hyperthermia families: implications for genetics analysis, diagnosis, and incidence of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Anesthesiology. 2002 Nov;97(5):1067-74. Abstract

18. Ibarra MCA, Wu S, Murayama K, et al. Malignant hyperthermia in Japan: mutation screening of the entire ryanodine receptor type 1 gene coding region by direct sequencing. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jun;104(6):1146-54. Abstract

19. Brandom BW, Bina S, Wong CA, et al. Ryanodine receptor type 1 gene variants in the malignant hyperthermia-susceptible population of the United States. Anesth Analg. 2013 May;116(5):1078-86.Full text  Abstract

20. Gonsalves SG, Ng D, Johnston JJ, et al; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program. Using exome data to identify malignant hyperthermia susceptibility mutations. Anesthesiology. 2013 Nov;119(5):1043-53.Full text  Abstract

21. Kraeva N, Riazi S, Loke J, et al. Ryanodine receptor type 1 gene mutations found in the Canadian malignant hyperthermia population. Can J Anaesth. 2011 Jun;58(6):504-13.Full text  Abstract

22. Chan B, Chen SP, Wong WC, et al. RYR1-related central core myopathy in a Chinese adolescent boy. Hong Kong Med J. 2011 Feb;17(1):67-70.Full text  Abstract

23. Gillies RL, Bjorksten AR, Du Sart D, et al. Analysis of the entire ryanodine receptor type 1 and alpha 1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNA1S) coding regions for variants associated with malignant hyperthermia in Australian families. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2015 Mar;43(2):157-66. Abstract

24. Sambuughin N, Holley H, Muldoon S, et al. Screening of the entire ryanodine receptor type 1 coding region for sequence variants associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in the North American population. Anesthesiology. 2005 Mar;102(3):515-21. Abstract

25. Levano S, Vukcevic M, Singer M, et al. Increasing the number of diagnostic mutations in malignant hyperthermia. Human Mutat. 2009 Apr;30(4):590-8. Abstract

26. Sumitani M, Uchida K, Yasunaga H, et al. Prevalence of malignant hyperthermia and relationship with anesthetics in Japan: data from the diagnosis procedure combination database. Anesthesiology. 2011 Jan;114(1):84-90. Abstract

27. Visoiu M, Young MC, Wieland K, et al. Anesthetic drugs and onset of malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):388-96. Abstract

28. Butala B, Brandom B. Muscular body build and male sex are independently associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Can J Anaesth. 2017 Apr;64(4):396-401. Abstract

29. Ibarra Moreno CA, Hu S, Kraeva N, et al. An Assessment of Penetrance and Clinical Expression of Malignant Hyperthermia in Individuals Carrying Diagnostic Ryanodine Receptor 1 Gene Mutations. Anesthesiology. 2019 Nov;131(5):983-991.Full text  Abstract

30. Migita T, Mukaida K, Kobayashi M, et al. The severity of sevoflurane-induced malignant hyperthermia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012 Mar;56(3):351-6. Abstract

31. Carsana A. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis and stress-induced malignant hyperthermia events, association with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility, and RYR1 gene sequence variations. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:531465.Full text  Abstract

32. Klingler W, Heiderich S, Girard T, et al. Functional and genetic characterization of clinical malignant hyperthermia crises: a multi-centre study. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014 Jan 16;9:8.Full text  Abstract

33. Brislin RP, Theroux MC. Core myopathies and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: a review. Paediatr Anaesth.2013 Sep;23(9):834-41. Abstract

34. Joseph MR, Theroux MC, Mooney JJ, et al. Intraoperative presentation of malignant hyperthermia (confirmed by RYR1 gene mutation, c.7522C>T; p.R2508C) leads to diagnosis of King-Denborough syndrome in a child with hypotonia and dysmorphic features: a case report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Feb 1;8(3):55-7. Abstract

35. Timmins MA, Rosenberg H, Larach MG, et al. Malignant hyperthermia testing in probands without adverse anesthetic reaction. Anesthesiology. 2015 Sep;123(3):548-56. Abstract

36. Hirshey Dirksen SJ, Larach MG, Rosenberg H, et al. Future directions in malignant hyperthermia research and patient care. Anesth Analg. 2011 Nov;113(5):1108-19.Full text  Abstract

37. Fill M, Coronado R, Mickelson JR, et al. Abnormal ryanodine receptor channels in malignant hyperthermia. Biophys J. 1990 Mar;57(3):471-5.Full text  Abstract

38. Laver DR, Owen VJ, Junankar PR, et al. Reduced inhibitory effect of Mg2+ on ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels in malignant hyperthermia. Biophys J. 1997 Oct;73(4):1913-24.Full text  Abstract

39. Durham WJ, Aracena-Parks P, Long C, et al. RyR1 S-nitrosylation underlies environmental heat stroke and sudden death in Y522S RyR1 knockin mice. Cell. 2008 Apr 4;133(1):53-65. Abstract

40. Chelu MG, Goonasekera SA, Durham WJ, et al. Heat- and anesthesia-induced malignant hyperthermia in an RyR1 knock-in mouse. FASEB. 2006 Feb;20(2):329-30. Abstract

41. Zhao X, Min CK, Ko JK, et al. Increased store-operated Ca2+ entry in skeletal muscle with reduced calsequestrin-1 expression. Biophys J. 2010 Sep 8;99(5):1556-64.Full text  Abstract

42. Horstick EJ, Linsley JW, Dowling JJ, et al. Stac3 is a component of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and mutated in Native American myopathy. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1952.Full text  Abstract

43. Telegrafi A, Webb BD, Robbins SM, et al. Identification of STAC3 variants in non-Native American families with overlapping features of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome and Moebius syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Oct;173(10):2763-71. Abstract

44. Lopez JR, Allen PD, Alamo L, et al. Myoplasmic free [Ca2+] during a malignant hyperthermia episode in swine. Muscle Nerve. 1988 Jan;11(1):82-8. Abstract

45. Ohta T, Endo M, Nakano T, et al. Ca-induced Ca release in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible pig skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1989 Feb;256(2 Pt 1):C358-67. Abstract

46. Ryan JF, Lopez JR, Sanchez VB, et al. Myoplasmic calcium changes precede metabolic and clinical signs of porcine malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 1994 Nov;79(5):1007-11. Abstract

47. Bouchama A, Knochel JP. Heat stroke. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 20;346(25):1978-88. Abstract

48. Rosenberg H. Mining for mutations in malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 2011 Nov;113(5):975-6.Full text  Abstract

49. Landau ME, Kenney K, Deuster P, et al. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: a clinical review with a focus on genetic influences. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2012 Mar;13(3):122-36. Abstract

50. Zhao X, Song Q, Gao Y. Hypothesis: exertional heat stroke-induced myopathy and genetically inherited malignant hyperthermia represent the same disorder, the human stress syndrome. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 Nov;70(2):1325-9. Abstract

51. Kraeva N, Sapa A, Dowling JJ, et al. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis: a retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review. Can J Anaesth. 2017 Jul;64(7):736-743.Full text  Abstract

52. Larach MG, Brandom BW, Allen GC, et al. Malignant hyperthermia deaths related to inadequate temperature monitoring, 2007-2012: a report from the North American malignant hyperthermia registry of the malignant hyperthermia association of the United States. Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec;119(6):1359-66. Abstract

53. Shafer SL, Dexter F, Brull SJ. Deadly heat: economics of continuous temperature monitoring during general anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec;119(6):1235-7. Abstract

54. Nelson P, Litman RS. Malignant hyperthermia in children: an analysis of the North American malignant hyperthermia registry. Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):369-74. Abstract

55. Larach MG, Localio AR, Allen GC, et al. A clinical grading scale to predict MH susceptibility. Anesthesiology. 1994 Apr;80(4):771-9. Abstract

56. Hopkins PM, Rüffert H, Snoeck MM, et al. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Br J Anaesth. 2015 Oct;115(4):531-9.Full text  Abstract

57. Herlich A. Perioperative temperature elevation: not all hyperthermia is malignant hyperthermia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Sep;23(9):842-50. Abstract

58. Smith JP, Sutcliffe OB, Banks CE. An overview of recent developments in the analytical detection of new psychoactive substances (NPSs). Analyst. 2015 Aug 7;140(15):4932-48.Full text  Abstract

59. Lopez RJ, Byrne S, Vukcevic M, et al. An RYR1 mutation associated with malignant hyperthermia is also associated with bleeding abnormalities. Sci Signal. 2016 Jul 5;9(435):ra68. Abstract

60. Robinson RL, Anetseder MJ, Brancadoro V, et al. Recent advances in the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: how confident can we be of genetic testing? Eur J Human Genet. 2003 Apr;11(4):342-8.Full text  Abstract

61. Metterlein T, Schuster F, Kranke P, et al. In-vitro contracture testing for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia: can halothane be replaced? Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011 Apr;28(4):251-5. Abstract

62. Islander G, Twetman ER. Comparison between the European and North American protocols for diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in humans. Anesth Analg. 1999 May;88(5):1155-60.Full text  Abstract

63. Stowell KM. DNA testing for malignant hyperthermia: the reality and the dream. Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):397-406. Abstract

64. Riazi S, Kraeva N, Hopkins PM. Malignant Hyperthermia in the Post-Genomics Era: New Perspectives on an Old Concept. Anesthesiology. 2018 Jan;128(1):168-180.Full text  Abstract

65. Lanner JT. Ryanodine receptor physiology and its role in disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;740:217-34. Abstract

66. Robinson RL, Curran JL, Ellis FR, et al. Multiple interacting gene products may influence susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. Ann Hum Genet. 2000 Jul;64(Pt 4):307-20. Abstract

67. Schiemann AH, Paul N, Parker R, et al. Functional characterization of 2 known ryanodine receptor mutations causing malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 2014 Feb;118(2):375-80. Abstract

68. Kaufmann A, Kraft B, Michalek-Sauberer A, et al. Novel double and single ryanodine receptor 1 variants in two Austrian malignant hyperthermia families. Anesth Analg. 2012 May;114(5):1017-25. Abstract

69. Girard T, Treves S, Voronkov E, et al. Molecular genetic testing for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Anesthesiology. 2004 May;100(5):1076-80. Abstract

70. Gronert GA, Tobin JR, Muldoon S. Malignant hyperthermia: human stress triggering. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Dec;1813(12):2191-2. Abstract

71. Schütte JK, Becker S, Burmester S, et al. Comparison of the therapeutic effectiveness of a dantrolene sodium solution and a novel nanocrystalline suspension of dantrolene sodium in malignant hyperthermia normal and susceptible pigs. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011 Apr;28(4):256-64. Abstract

72. Newmark JL, Voelkel M, Brandom BW, et al. Delayed onset of malignant hyperthermia without creatine kinase elevation in a geriatric, ryanodine receptor type 1 gene compound heterozygous patient. Anesthesiology. 2007 Aug;107(2):350-3. Abstract

73. Allen GC, Larach MG, Kunselman AR, and the North American MH Registry of MHAUS. The sensitivity and specificity of the caffeine-halothane contracture test. Anesthesiology. 1998 Mar;88(3):579-88. Abstract

74. Ording H, Brancadoro V, Cozzolino S, et al. In vitro contracture test for diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia following the protocol of the European MH Group: results of testing patients surviving fulminant MH and unrelated low-risk subjects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997 Sep;41(8):955-66. Abstract

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78. Paden MS, Franjic L, Halcomb SE. Hyperthermia caused by drug interactions and adverse reactions. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013 Nov;31(4):1035-44. Abstract

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80. Shailesh Kumar MV, Carr RJ, Komanduri V, et al. Differential diagnosis of thyroid crisis and malignant hyperthermia in an anesthetized porcine model. Endocr Res. 1999 Feb;25(1):87-103. Abstract

81. Grunau BE, Wiens MO, Brubacher JR. Dantrolene in the treatment of MDMA-related hyperpyrexia: a systematic review. CJEM. 2010 Sep;12(5):435-42. Abstract

82. Sykutera M, Cychowska M, Bloch-Boguslawska E. A fatal case of pentedrone and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone poisoning. J Anal Toxicol. 2015 May;39(4):324-9. Abstract

83. Larach MG; North American Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Standardization of the caffeine-halothane muscle contracture test. Anesth Analg. 1989 Oct;69(4):511-5. Abstract

84. Kim TW, Nemergut ME. Preparation of modern anesthesia workstations for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients: a review of past and present practice. Anesthesiology. 2011 Jan;114(1):205-12.Full text  Abstract

85. Cottron N, Larcher C, Sommet A, et al. The sevoflurane washout profile of seven recent anesthesia workstations for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible adults and infants: a bench test study. Anesth Analg. 2014 Jul;119(1):67-75. Abstract

86. Block FE Jr. Malignant hyperthermia and charcoal absorbent: too hot to handle. Anesth Analg. 2011 Jun;112(6):1270-1. Abstract

87. Bilmen JG, Gillies RI. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2014 Jan;42(1):51-8. Abstract

88. Glahn KP, Ellis FR, Halsall PJ, et al. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Br J Anaesth. 2010 Oct;105(4):417-20.Full text  Abstract

89. Kang BJ, Song J, Kim SK, et al. A suspected case of malignant hyperthermia that was successfully treated with dantrolene administration via nasogastric tube. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2012 Oct;63(4):378-80.Full text  Abstract

90. Litman RS, Smith VI, Larach MG, et al. Consensus statement of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States on unresolved clinical questions concerning the management of patients with malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 2019 Apr;128(4):652-9. Abstract

91. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. Managing a crisis. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

92. Fang S, Xu H, Zhu Y, et al. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration for massive rhabdomyolysis after malignant hyperthermia: report of 2 cases. Anesth Prog. 2013 Spring;60(1):21-4.Full text  Abstract

93. Migita T, Mukaida K, Yasuda T, et al. Calcium channel blockers are inadequate for malignant hyperthermia crisis. J Anesth. 2012 Aug;26(4):579-84. Abstract

94. Burkman JM, Posner KL, Domino KB. Analysis of the clinical variables associated with recrudescence after malignant hyperthermia reactions. Anesthesiology. 2007 May;106(5):901-6. Abstract

95. Brandom BW, Kang A, Sivak EL, et al. Update on dantrolene in the treatment of anesthetic induced malignant hyperthermia. SOJ Anesthesiol Pain Manag. 2015 Apr 20;2(2):1-6.Full text

96. Butala BN, Kang A, Guron J, et al. Long term oral dantrolene improved muscular symptoms in a malignant hyperthermia susceptible Individual. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2016 Mar 3;3(1):115-9. Abstract

97. Brown CV, Rhee P, Chan L, et al. Preventing renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis: do bicarbonate and mannitol make a difference? J Trauma. 2004 Jun;56(6):1191-6. Abstract

98. Zimmerman JL, Shen MC. Rhabdomyolysis. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):1058-1065. Abstract

99. Werneid K, Brandom B. Survey of long-term sequelae in survivors of a malignant hyperthermia reaction. Open J Anesthesiol. 2016 Jan:6(1);1-7.Full text

100. Larach MG, Brandom BW, Allen GC, et al. Cardiac arrests and deaths associated with malignant hyperthermia in North America from 1987 to 2006: a report from the North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. Anesthesiology. 2008 Apr;108(4):603-11. Abstract

101. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Perioperative management of known or suspected MHS. Jan 2021 [internet publication].Full text

102. Rüffert H, Bastian B, Bendixen D, et al. Consensus guidelines on perioperative management of malignant hyperthermia suspected or susceptible patients from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Br J Anaesth. 2021 Jan;126(1):120-30.Full text  Abstract

103. Urman RD, Rajan N, Belani K, et al. Malignant hyperthermia-susceptible adult patient and ambulatory surgery center: Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia and Ambulatory Surgical Care Committee of the American Society of Anesthesiologists position statement. Anesth Analg. 2019 Aug;129(2):347-9.Full text  Abstract

104. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. Preparation of anaesthetic workstations for MH suspected or susceptible patients. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text

105. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. Preparing the anesthesia machine for MHS patients [internet publication].Full text

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