Oesophageal cancer typically presents late, which in part contributes to the generally poor prognosis. Clinicians need to remain vigilant and investigate patients thoroughly in order to make the diagnosis at the earliest possible opportunity. Important risk factors for oesophageal cancer include male sex; tobacco use; excessive alcohol intake; GORD and Barrett's oesophagus; family history of oesophageal, stomach, oral, or pharyngeal cancer; low socioeconomic status; and a diet low in fresh fruit and vegetables.
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