Oesophageal cancer typically presents late, which in part contributes to the generally poor prognosis. Clinicians need to remain vigilant and investigate patients thoroughly in order to make the diagnosis at the earliest possible opportunity. Important risk factors for oesophageal cancer include male sex; tobacco use; excessive alcohol intake; GORD and Barrett's oesophagus; family history of oesophageal, stomach, oral, or pharyngeal cancer; low socioeconomic status; and a diet low in fresh fruit and vegetables.

BMJ Best Practice is an evidence-based point of care tool for healthcare practitioners.

To continue reading and access all of BMJ Best Practice's pages you'll need to log in or start a free trial.

You can access through your institution if your hospital, university, trust or other institution provides access to BMJ Best Practice through either OpenAthens or Shibboleth.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer