Last reviewed: 25 Oct 2020
Last updated: 14 Jul 2020

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Folic acid deficiency
  • Bone marrow infiltration by non-haematological malignancy
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Hairy cell leukaemia
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
  • Myelodysplasia
  • Cirrhosis
  • Seronegative (idiopathic) hepatitis (likely autoimmune)
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • HIV
  • Cytomegalovirus infection
  • Mycobacterial infection

Uncommon

  • Acute myeloid leukaemia
  • Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL)
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Lysosomal storage disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
  • Heavy metal (arsenic) poisoning
  • Parvovirus infection in sickle cell anaemia (and other haemolytic anaemias)
  • Dyskeratosis congenita (DC)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH)
  • Idiopathic aplastic anaemia
  • Fanconi's anaemia
  • Other rare inherited cytopenias (e.g., Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia)
  • Idiopathic portal hypertension
  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Haemophagocytosis syndromes
  • Drug-induced immune pancytopenia
  • Evans syndrome with associated neutropenia
  • Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Felty syndrome

Contributors

Frances and Thomas Gambino Professor of Pediatrics in Hematology/Oncology

Professor of Molecular Medicine

Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell

Professor, The Center for Autoimmune Musculoskeletal and Hematopoietic Diseases

Feinstein Institute for Medical Research

Director, Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation

Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York

New York City

New York

Disclosures

JML declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Jeffrey M. Lipton would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeff K. Davies and Dr Eva C. Guinan, the previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

JKD and ECG declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor and Division Director

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Cincinnati

OH

Disclosures

SD declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant Hematologist

Department of Hematology

The Royal London Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

DP was medical director at GlaxoSmithKline 2005-2006.

Director

Bone Marrow Failure Clinic

Tomorrows Children's Institute

Hackensack University Medical Center

Hackensack

NJ

Disclosures

APG declares that he has no competing interests.

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