Acne vulgaris

References

Key articles

Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):945-73.e33.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acne vulgaris: management. Jun 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, et al. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jul;49(1 suppl):S1-37. Abstract

Reference articles

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3. White GM. Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 3):S34-7. Abstract

4. US Food and Drug Administration. Acne vulgaris: establishing effectiveness of drugs intended for treatment. May 2018 [internet publication].Full text

5. Burke BM, Cunliffe WJ. The assessment of acne vulgaris - the Leeds technique. Br J Dermatol. 1984 Jul;111(1):83-92. Abstract

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11. Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M, et al. Acne vulgaris: a disease of western civilization. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec;138(12):1584-90. Abstract

12. White GM. Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 3):S34-7. Abstract

13. Yentzer BA, Hick J, Reese EL, et al. Acne vulgaris in the United States: a descriptive epidemiology. Cutis. 2010 Aug;86(2):94-9. Abstract

14. Wilkins JW, Voorhees JJ. Prevalence of nodulocystic acne in white and Negro males. Arch Dermatol. 1970 Dec;102(6):631-4. Abstract

15. Tan JK, Bhate K. A global perspective on the epidemiology of acne. Br J Dermatol. 2015 Jul;172 Suppl 1:3-12.Full text  Abstract

16. Gollnick HP, Zouboulis CC, Akamatsu H. Pathogenesis and pathogenesis related treatment of acne. J Dermatol. 1991 Sep;18(9):489-99. Abstract

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19. Walton S, Wyatt EH, Cunliffe WJ. Genetic control of sebum excretion in acne - a twin study. Br J Dermatol. 1988 Mar;118(3):393-6. Abstract

20. Bataille V, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, et al. The influence of genetics and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of acne: a twin study of acne in women. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Dec;119(6):1317-22. Abstract

21. Common JEA, Barker JN, van Steensel MAM. What does acne genetics teach us about disease pathogenesis? Br J Dermatol. 2019 Oct;181(4):665-676.Full text  Abstract

22. Petridis C, Navarini AA, Dand N, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis implicates mediators of hair follicle development and morphogenesis in risk for severe acne. Nat Commun. 2018 Dec 12;9(1):5075.Full text  Abstract

23. Navarini AA, Simpson MA, Weale M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel susceptibility loci for severe Acne vulgaris. Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 13;5:4020.Full text  Abstract

24. Knutson DD. Ultrastructural observations in acne vulgaris: the normal sebaceous follicle and acne lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 1974 Mar;62:288-307. Abstract

25. Scott DG, Cunliffe WJ, Gowland G. Activation of complement - a mechanism for the inflammation in acne. Br J Dermatol. 1979 Sep;101(3):315-20. Abstract

26. Fiedler F, Stangl GI, Fiedler E, et al. Acne and nutrition: a systematic review. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Jan 4;97(1):7-9.Full text  Abstract

27. Thiboutot DM, Strauss JS. Diet and acne revisited. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec;138(12):1591-2. Abstract

28. Dai R, Hua W, Chen W, et al. The effect of milk consumption on acne: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018 Dec;32(12):2244-53. Abstract

29. Aghasi M, Golzarand M, Shab-Bidar S, et al. Dairy intake and acne development: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun;38(3):1067-75. Abstract

30. Penso L, Touvier M, Deschasaux M, et al. Association between adult acne and dietary behaviors: findings from the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Aug 1;156(8):854-62.Full text  Abstract

31. Juhl CR, Bergholdt HKM, Miller IM, et al. Dairy intake and acne vulgaris: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 78,529 children, adolescents, and young adults. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 9;10(8):1049.Full text  Abstract

32. Strauss JS, Pochi PE. Effect of cyclic progestin-estrogen therapy on sebum and acne in women. JAMA. 1964 Nov 30;190(9):815-9. Abstract

33. Yang CS, Teeple M, Muglia J, et al. Inflammatory and glandular skin disease in pregnancy. Clin Dermatol. 2016 May-Jun;34(3):335-43. Abstract

34. Aizawa H, Niimura M. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with postadolescent acne. J Dermatol. 1995 Apr;22(4):249-52. Abstract

35. Yamamoto O, Tokura Y. Photocontact dermatitis and chloracne: two major occupational and environmental skin diseases induced by different actions of halogenated chemicals. J Dermatol Sci. 2003 Aug;32(2):85-94. Abstract

36. Brown SK, Shalita AR. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 1998 Jun 20;351(9119):1871-6. Abstract

37. Hull PR, D'Arcy C. Acne, depression, and suicide. Dermatol Clin. 2005;23:665-674. Abstract

38. Maranda EL, Simmons BJ, Nguyen AH, et al. Treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae: a systematic review of the literature. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2016 Sep;6(3):363-78.Full text  Abstract

39. Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Ehrlich R. Prevalence of cutaneous adverse effects of hairdressing. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Mar;142(3):377-83. Abstract

40. Rosas Vazquez E, Campos Macias P, Ochoa Tirado JG, et al. Chloracne in the 1990s. Int J Dermatol. 1996 Sep;35(9):643-5. Abstract

41. Lewis KG, Bercovitch L, Dill SW, et al. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part I. increased elastic tissue and solar elasotic syndromes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jul;51(1):1-21;quiz 22-4. Abstract

42. Sehgal VN, Srivastava G, Aggarwal AK, et al. Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei part II: an overview. Skinmed. 2005 Jul-Aug;4(4):234-8. Abstract

43. Hengge UR, Ruzicka T, Schwartz RA, et al. Adverse effects of topical glucocorticosteroids. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Jan;54(1):1-15;quiz 16-8. Abstract

44. Plewig G, Jansen T, Kligman AM. Pyoderma faciale. A review and report of 20 additional cases: is it rosacea? Arch Dermatol. 1992 Dec;128(12):1611-7. Abstract

45. Schwartz RA, Fernandez G, Kotulska K, et al. Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2):189-202. Abstract

46. White GM. Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 3):S34-7. Abstract

47. US Food and Drug Administration. Acne vulgaris: establishing effectiveness of drugs intended for treatment. May 2018 [internet publication].Full text

48. Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5):945-73.e33.Full text  Abstract

49. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acne vulgaris: management. Jun 2021 [internet publication].Full text

50. Kawashima M, Harada S, Loesche C, et al. Adapalene gel 0.1% is effective and safe for Japanese patients with acne vulgaris: a randomized, multicenter, investigator-blinded, controlled study. J Dermatol Sci. 2008 Mar;49(3):241-8. Abstract

51. Thiboutot DM, Dréno B, Abanmi A, et al. Practical management of acne for clinicians: an international consensus from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Feb;78(2 suppl 1):S1-23;e1. Abstract

52. Yang Z, Zhang Y, Lazic Mosler E, et al. Topical benzoyl peroxide for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 16;3:CD011154.Full text  Abstract

53. Shalita AR. Treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris with salicylic acid in an alcohol-detergent vehicle. Cutis. 1981 Nov;28(5):556-8;561. Abstract

54. Liu H, Yu H, Xia J, et al. Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;5:CD011368.Full text  Abstract

55. Draelos ZD, Carter E, Maloney JM, et al. Two randomized studies demonstrate the efficacy and safety of dapsone gel, 5% for the treatment of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Mar;56(3):439.e1-10. Abstract

56. Tanghetti E, Dhawan S, Green L, et al. Clinical evidence for the role of a topical anti-inflammatory agent in comedonal acne: findings from a randomized study of dapsone gel 5% in combination with tazarotene cream 0.1% in patients with acne vulgaris. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Jul;10(7):783-92. Abstract

57. Thiboutot DM, Kircik L, McMichael A, et al. Efficacy, safety, and dermal tolerability of dapsone gel, 7.5% in patients with moderate acne vulgaris: a pooled analysis of two phase 3 trials. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Oct;9(10):18-27.Full text  Abstract

58. Seidler EM, Kimball AB. Meta-analysis comparing efficacy of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide with salicylic acid, and combination benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jul;63(1):52-62. Abstract

59. Kolli SS, Pecone D, Pona A, et al. Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2019 Jun;20(3):345-65. Abstract

60. Graupe K, Cunliffe W, Gollnick H, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical azelaic acid (20% cream): an overview of results from European clinical trials and experimental reports. Cutis. 1996 Jan;57(1 suppl):20-35. Abstract

61. Harper JC, Baldwin H, Stein Gold L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel tretinoin 0.05% lotion for the once-daily treatment of moderate or severe acne vulgaris in adult females. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Nov 1;18(11):1147-54. Abstract

62. Walsh TR, Efthimiou J, Dreno B. Systematic review of antibiotic resistance in acne: an increasing topical and oral threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Mar;16(3):e23-33. Abstract

63. Ochsendorf F. Systemic antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris [in German]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Mar;8 (suppl 1):S31-46. Abstract

64. Costa CS, Bagatin E, Martimbianco ALC, et al. Oral isotretinoin for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 24;11:CD009435.Full text  Abstract

65. Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, et al. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jul;49(1 suppl):S1-37. Abstract

66. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Oral retinoid medicines: revised and simplified pregnancy prevention educational materials for healthcare professionals and women. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

67. Goldsmith LA, Bolognia JL, Callen JP, et al; American Academy of Dermatology. American Academy of Dermatology Consensus Conference on the safe and optimal use of isotretinoin: summary and recommendations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jun;50(6):900-6. Abstract

68. Goodfield MJ, Cox NH, Bowser A, et al. Advice on the safe introduction and continued use of isotretinoin in acne in the U.K. 2010. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Jun;162(6):1172-9.Full text  Abstract

69. Huang YC, Cheng, YC. Isotretinoin treatment for acne and risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jun;76(6):1068-76;e9. Abstract

70. Li C, Chen J, Wang W, et al. Use of isotretinoin and risk of depression in patients with acne: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019 Jan 21;9(1):e021549.Full text  Abstract

71. Wright S, Strunk A, Garg A. Risk of new-onset inflammatory bowel disease among patients with acne vulgaris exposed to isotretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Jan;84(1):41-5. Abstract

72. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Position statement on isotretinoin. Feb 2018 [internet publication].Full text

73. Jansen T, Plewig G. Acne fulminans. Int J Dermatol. 1998 Apr;37(4):254-7. Abstract

74. Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, et al. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;(7):CD004425.Full text  Abstract

75. Fraison E, Kostova E, Moran LJ, et al. Metformin versus the combined oral contraceptive pill for hirsutism, acne, and menstrual pattern in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 13;8:CD005552.Full text  Abstract

76. Zouboulis CC, Rabe T. Hormonal antiandrogens in acne treatment [in German]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Mar;8(suppl 1):S60-74. Abstract

77. Barbieri JS, Choi JK, Mitra N, et al. Frequency of treatment switching for spironolactone compared to oral tetracycline-class antibiotics for women with acne: a retrospective cohort study 2010-2016. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018 Jun 1;17(6):632-8. Abstract

78. Layton AM, Eady EA, Whitehouse H, et al. Oral spironolactone for acne vulgaris in adult females: a hybrid systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Apr;18(2):169-91.Full text  Abstract

79. Fan H, Gilbert R, O'Callaghan F, et al. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2020 Feb 19;368:m331.Full text  Abstract

80. Cunliffe WJ, Poncet M, Loesche C, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene 0.1% gel versus tretinoin 0.025% gel in patients with acne vulgaris: a meta-analysis of five randomized trials. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:48-56. Abstract

81. Thiboutot DM, Weiss J, Bucko A, et al; Adapalene-BPO Study Group. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide, a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of acne vulgaris: results of a multicenter, randomized double-blind, controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):791-9. Abstract

82. Gollnick HP, Draelos Z, Glenn MJ. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide, a unique fixed-dose combination topical gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a transatlantic, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in 1670 patients. Br J Dermatol. 2009 Nov;161(5):1180-9. Abstract

83. Poulin YS, Sanchez NP, Bucko A, et al. A 6-month maintenance therapy with adapalene-benzoyl peroxide gel prevents relapse and continuously improves efficacy among patients with severe acne vulgaris: results of a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jun;164(6):1376-82. Abstract

84. Friedman A, Waite K, Brandt S, et al. Accelerated onset of action and increased tolerability in treating acne with a fixed-dose combination gel. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Feb;15(2):231-6. Abstract

85. Zouboulis CC, Piquero-Martin J. Update and future of systemic acne treatment. Dermatology. 2003;206(1):37-53. Abstract

86. Simonart T, Dramaix M, De Maertelaer V. Efficacy of tetracyclines in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a review. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Feb;158(2):208-16. Abstract

87. Muhlemann MF, Carter GD, Cream JJ, et al. Oral spironolactone: an effective treatment for acne vulgaris in women. Br J Dermatol. 1986 Aug;115(2):227-32. Abstract

88. Hebert A, Thiboutot D, Stein Gold L, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical clascoterone cream, 1%, for treatment in patients with facial acne: two phase 3 randomized clinical trials. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Jun 1;156(6):621-30.Full text  Abstract

89. Barbaric J, Abbott R, Posadzki P, et al. Light therapies for acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 27;9(9):CD007917.Full text  Abstract

90. Boen M, Brownell J, Patel P, et al. The role of photodynamic therapy in acne: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jun;18(3):311-21. Abstract

91. Ong MW, Bashir SJ. Fractional laser resurfacing for acne scars: a review. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Jun;166(6):1160-9. Abstract

92. Tan J, Thiboutot D, Popp G, et al. Randomized phase 3 evaluation of trifarotene 50 μg/g cream treatment of moderate facial and truncal acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jun;80(6):1691-9.Full text  Abstract

93. Bell KA, Brumfiel CM, Haidari W, et al. Trifarotene for the treatment of facial and truncal acne. Ann Pharmacother. 2021 Jan;55(1):111-6.Full text  Abstract

94. Gold LS, Dhawan S, Weiss J, et al. A novel topical minocycline foam for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris: results of 2 randomized, double-blind, phase 3 studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jan;80(1):168-77. Abstract

95. Raoof TJ, Hooper D, Moore A, et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel topical minocycline foam for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris: a phase 3 study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Apr;82(4):832-7.Full text  Abstract

96. Ansari F, Sadeghi-Ghyassi F, Yaaghoobian B. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser in acne scars and skin rejuvenation: a meta-analysis and economic evaluation. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2018 Aug;20(4):248-51. Abstract

97. Bhargava S, Cunha PR, Lee J, et al. Acne scarring management: systematic review and evaluation of the evidence. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2018 Aug;19(4):459-77. Abstract

98. Harris AG, Naidoo C, Murrell DF. Skin needling as a treatment for acne scarring: an up-to-date review of the literature. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2015 Apr 10;1(2):77-81.Full text  Abstract

99. Bonati LM, Epstein GK, Strugar TL. Microneedling in all skin types: a review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017 Apr 1;16(4):308-13. Abstract

100. Alster TS, Graham PM. Microneedling: a review and practical guide. Dermatol Surg. 2018 Mar;44(3):397-404. Abstract

101. Ramaut L, Hoeksema H, Pirayesh A, et al. Microneedling: where do we stand now? A systematic review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2018 Jan;71(1):1-14. Abstract

102. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Isotretinoin: the truth about side effects. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

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