Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • fatigue
  • edema
  • nausea with/without vomiting
  • pruritus
  • anorexia
  • infection-related glomerular disease

Other diagnostic factors

  • arthralgia
  • enlarged prostate gland
  • foamy-appearing urine
  • cola-colored urine
  • rashes
  • dyspnea
  • orthopnea
  • seizures
  • retinopathy

Risk factors

  • diabetes mellitus
  • hypertension
  • age >50 years
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • black or Hispanic ethnicity
  • FHx of chronic kidney disease
  • autoimmune disorders
  • male sex
  • long-term use of NSAIDs

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum creatinine
  • urinalysis
  • urine microalbumin
  • renal ultrasound
  • estimation of GFR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • renal biopsy
  • plain abdominal radiograph
  • abdominal CT
  • abdominal MRI
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Michelle W. Krause

Assistant Professor of Medicine

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Staff Physician

Central Arkansas Veteran's Healthcare System

Little Rock

AR

Disclosures

MWK declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Michelle Krause would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Sudhir V. Shah, a previous contributor to this topic. SVS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Internal Medicine - Nephrology

Southwestern Medical School

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

RT declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Nephrology

UCL Division of Medicine

University College London

London

UK

Disclosures

GHN declares that he has no competing interests.

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