Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: April  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • peripheral arthritis
  • axial arthritis

Other diagnostic factors

  • constitutional symptoms
  • enthesitis
  • mucous membrane involvement
  • skin rash
  • circinate balanitis
  • ocular manifestations
  • cardiac manifestations

Risk factors

  • male gender
  • HLA-B27 genotype
  • preceding chlamydial or GI infection

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • ESR
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • ANA
  • rheumatoid factor
  • urogenital and stool cultures
  • plain radiographs
  • arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • HLA-B27
  • nucleic amplification tests
  • MRI
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Division of Rheumatology

Chief

University of South Florida College of Medicine

Tampa

FL

Disclosures

JDC is a co-author of several references cited in this monograph.

Dr John D. Carter would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jason P. Guthrie, a previous contributor to this monograph. JPG declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Rheumatology

University of Cambridge

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

JSHG declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor and Chief

Section of Rheumatology

Department of Internal Medicine

LSU Health Sciences Center

New Orleans

LA

Disclosures

LRE is a co-author of several references cited in this monograph.

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