BMJ Best Practice is intended for licensed medical professionals. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (BMJ) does not advocate or endorse the use of any drug or therapy contained within this publication nor does it diagnose patients. As a medical professional you retain full responsibility for the care and treatment of your patients and you should use your own clinical judgement and expertise when using this product.

This content is not intended to cover all possible diagnosis methods, treatments, follow up, drugs and any contraindications or side effects. In addition since such standards and practices in medicine change as new data become available, you should consult a variety of sources. We strongly recommend that you independently verify specified diagnosis, treatments and follow-up and ensure it is appropriate for your patient within your region.  In addition, with respect to prescription medication, you are advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions of use and identify any changes in dosage schedule or contraindications, particularly if the drug to be administered is new, infrequently used, or has a narrow therapeutic range. You must always check that drugs referenced are licensed for the specified use and at the specified doses in your region.

Information included in BMJ Best Practice is provided on an "as is" basis without any representations, conditions or warranties that it is accurate and up to date. BMJ and its licensors and licensees assume no responsibility for any aspect of treatment administered to any of patients with the aid of this information. To the fullest extent permitted by law, BMJ and its licensors and licensees shall not incur any liability, including without limitation, liability for damages, arising from the content. All conditions, warranties and other terms which might otherwise be implied by the law including, without limitation, the warranties of satisfactory quality, fitness for a particular purpose, use of reasonable care and skill and non-infringement of proprietary rights are excluded.

Where BMJ Best Practice has been translated into a language other than English, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations or the content provided by third parties (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages). BMJ is not responsible for any errors and omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

Where BMJ Best Practice lists drug names, it does so by recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINNs) only.  It is possible that certain drug formularies might refer to the same drugs using different names. Please note that formulations and doses between drug nomenclatures may differ.  Where your version of BMJ Best Practice does not integrate with a local drug formulary, you should consult a local pharmaceutical database for comprehensive drug information including contraindications, drug interactions, and alternative dosing.

"Where Local Guidelines are available, this content has been produced by your institution or employer to highlight local information which may be relevant to the topic. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on Local Guideline content or functionality."

Interpretation of numbers

Regardless of the language in which the content is displayed, numerals are displayed according to the original English-language numerical separator standard. For example 4 digit numbers shall not include a comma nor a decimal point; numbers of 5 or more digits shall include commas; and numbers stated to be less than 1 shall be depicted using decimal points. See Figure 1 below for an explanatory table.

BMJ accepts no responsibility for misinterpretation of numbers that comply with this stated numerical separator standard.

This approach is in line with the guidance of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Service.

Figure 1 - BMJ Best Practice Numeral Style

BMJ Best Practice style

5-digit numerals


4-digit numerals


numerals <1


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