Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • previous stay in endemic area
  • immunosuppression
  • presence of risk factors
  • prolonged fever
  • weight loss
  • skin darkening
  • ulcerative lesions
  • multiple non-ulcerative skin nodules
  • destructive mucosal inflammation
  • splenomegaly

Other diagnostic factors

  • fatigue
  • cough
  • headache
  • wasting
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • hepatomegaly
  • previous anti-leishmanial treatment
  • epistaxis
  • abdominal pain

Risk factors

  • high exposure to sand fly bites
  • poverty
  • proximity to a previous cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis patient
  • ownership of domestic animals
  • immunosuppression

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC
  • LFTs and urea/creatinine
  • serum hCG
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • microscopic examination of relevant specimen
  • blood or tissue aspirate culture
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • serology
  • leishmanin skin test (Montenegro skin test)
  • serum HIV ELISA
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Vice President

Global Health

Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International

Washington

DC

Disclosures

RR is an author of several articles cited in this monograph.

Professor

Head of Division

Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine

Geneva University Hospitals

University of Geneva

Geneva

Switzerland

Disclosures

FC is an author of several articles cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Medical Epidemiologist

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

CB is an author of several articles cited in this monograph.

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