Most common cause of hyperthyroidism in countries with sufficient iodine intake.
Caused by TSH receptor antibodies.
Extrathyroidal manifestations include orbitopathy, pretibial myxoedema (thyroid dermopathy), or acropachy, which do not occur with other causes of hyperthyroidism.
Diagnostic tests are suppressed serum TSH, elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones, detectable TSH receptor antibodies, and high thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine (or technetium 99).
Treatment options are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, and thyroid surgery.
Untreated hyperthyroidism, particularly in older people, may result in cardiac arrhythmias, high-output cardiac failure, bone mineral loss, and, rarely, thyroid storm.
Unusual complications include vision loss secondary to orbitopathy or elephantiasis secondary to dermopathy.
Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid condition associated with hyperthyroidism. Associated orbitopathy occurs in around 25% of cases and is usually mild;  associated dermopathy and acropachy are rare, and almost always seen with orbitopathy.  TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) receptor antibodies cause the hyperthyroid syndrome.  The aetiology of extrathyroidal manifestations is less clear.    Diagnosis is mostly clinical and is usually confirmed by laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction, most commonly hyperthyroidism. 
Department of Endocrinology
Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Newcastle upon Tyne
PP has carried out unpaid work for the following organisations: British Thyroid Foundation, British Thyroid Association, Society for Endocrinology (Thyroid Network), Butterfly Thyroid Cancer Trust, Hypopara UK, Thyroid Federation International, Thyroid Eye Disease Amsterdam Declaration Implementation, and European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy. PP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Dr Petros Perros would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Douglas S. Ross, Dr George Hennemann, and Dr Vahab Fatourechi, the previous contributors to this monograph.
DSR, GH, and VF are authors of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Boston University Medical Center
ENP is a consultant for Scientific Consulting Company GmbH and a management council member for the Iodine Global Network.
Reader in Endocrinology
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
KB declares that she has no competing interests.
Clinical Lead for Endocrinology
Chair of Thyroid MDM
Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust
PC declares that he has no competing interests.
Sinai Hospital of Baltimore
DC declares that he has no competing interests.
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