Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • waist circumference
  • hip circumference
  • comorbid conditions

Risk factors

  • hypothyroidism
  • hypercortisolism
  • age ≥40 years
  • peri- and postmenopause
  • prior pregnancy
  • married
  • sleep deprivation
  • hx of tobacco smoking
  • less formal education
  • poor in utero nutrition
  • low socioeconomic status
  • sedentary lifestyle
  • television watching and video games >2 to 3 hours daily
  • diet high in sugar, cholesterol, fat, and fast food
  • heavy alcohol intake (>2 drinks per day)
  • binge-eating disorder
  • night eating syndrome
  • leptin deficiency
  • corticosteroid therapy
  • antidepressant therapy
  • antipsychotic therapy
  • beta-blocker therapy
  • adjuvant breast cancer therapy
  • psychiatric diagnosis

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • FBC
  • serum transaminases
  • thyroid function tests
  • ECG
  • abdominal ultrasound scan
  • polysomnography (sleep study)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Constantine T. Frantzides

Director

Chicago Institute of Minimally Invasive Surgery

Director

Minimally Invasive Surgery Fellowship Program

St. Francis Hospital

Clinical Professor of Surgery

University of Illinois

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

CTF declares that he has no competing interests.

Minh B. Luu

Associate Director, General Surgery Residency Program

Rush Medical College

Associate Professor of Surgery

Department of General Surgery

Rush University Medical Center

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

MBL declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Constantine T. Frantzides and Dr Minh B. Luu would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Scott N. Welle and Dr Mark A. Carlson, previous contributors to this topic. SNW declares that he has no competing interests. MAC declares that he is the author of the Daily Diet Score, a freely available online weight loss method.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant in Metabolic Medicine

Imperial College London

Charing Cross Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

CLR declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Chair for Obesity Research & Management

University of Alberta

Royal Alexandra Hospital

Edmonton

Canada

Disclosures

AMS declares that he has no competing interests.

Chair in Surgery

Division of Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery

University of Texas

Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

EHL declares that he has no competing interests.

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