Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • pain
  • functional difficulties
  • knee, hip, hand, or spine involvement
  • bony deformities
  • limited range of motion
  • malalignment

Other diagnostic factors

  • tenderness
  • crepitus
  • stiffness
  • shoulder, elbow, wrist, or ankle involvement
  • effusion
  • antalgic gait

Risk factors

  • age >50 years
  • female gender
  • obesity
  • genetic factors
  • physical/manual occupation
  • knee malalignment
  • high bone mineral density

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • x-ray of affected joints
  • serum CRP
  • serum ESR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • rheumatoid factor (RF)
  • anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody
  • MRI of affected joints
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Fadi Badlissi

Assistant Professor

Harvard Medical School

Attending Physician

Director of the Musculoskeletal Medicine Unit

Department of Orthopedics & Division of Rheumatology

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

FB declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Boston University Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit

Boston University School of Medicine

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DH declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Clinical Rheumatology

Department of Rheumatology

King’s College

London

UK

Disclosures

Not disclosed.

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