Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • oral pain
  • weight loss

Other diagnostic factors

  • sore throat
  • neck lump
  • indurated or ulcerated mass
  • dysphagia
  • neck lymphadenopathy
  • otalgia
  • trismus
  • white (leukoplakia) and red plaques (erythroplakia)

Risk factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • smoking cigarettes
  • alcohol
  • HPV-16 infection
  • tobacco and betel nut chewing

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • forceps biopsy of lesion
  • PET-CT of the head and neck
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CT scan of the head and neck
  • MRI of the head and neck
  • panendoscopy or triple endoscopy
  • FNA of neck nodes
  • excision biopsy of neck nodes
  • modified barium swallow
  • in situ hybridisation for HPV-16, p16 immunohistochemistry, or PCR in biopsy specimen
  • FBC
  • electrolytes
  • blood urea/nitrogen
  • serum creatinine
  • total protein
  • albumin
  • pre-albumin
  • LFTs
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor and Chair

Radiation Oncology Department

Howard University

Washington

DC

Disclosures

NPN is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Assistant Professor of Radiology

University of Arizona

Tucson

AZ

Disclosures

FA declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Nam P. Nguyen and Dr Fabio Almeida would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Linda Garland, a previous contributor to this monograph. LG is on the speakers' bureau for Sanofi-Aventis, maker of Taxotere.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chair

Multidisciplinary Head & Neck Team

Department of Head & Neck Oncology and Surgery

The Netherlands Cancer Institute

Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Disclosures

AJB declares that he has no competing interests.

Specializing in Head & Neck Cancer

Director of Clinical Trials

Radiation Oncology

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute

Tampa

FL

Disclosures

AT is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Yale Cancer Center

Yale University

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

HD is on the speakers' bureau for Sanofi-Aventis and has received reimbursement for talks given about their product Taxotere.

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