Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • flushing
  • erythema
  • papules and pustules
  • telangiectases
  • ocular manifestations
  • plaque formation
  • phymatous changes
  • facial distribution

Other diagnostic factors

  • acne vulgaris
  • burning or stinging
  • dry appearance
  • oedema
  • peripheral location

Risk factors

  • lighter skin type
  • hot baths/showers
  • temperature extremes
  • sunlight
  • spicy foods
  • alcohol
  • emotional stress
  • hot drinks
  • medicines

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Abel D. Jarell

Dermatologist and Dermatopathologist

Northeast Dermatology Associates

Principal Investigator

ActivMed Research

Portsmouth

NH

Disclosures

ADJ declares that he has no conflicting interests.

Dr Abel D. Jarell would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Alexa Boer Kimball, a previous contributor to this monograph. ABK has received honoraria for consulting from Intendis and has been an investigator for Intendis and Bayer.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chief Dermatology Resident

University of California

Irvine

CA

Disclosures

JJW declares that he has no competing interests.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center

Vallejo

CA

Disclosures

PM declares that she has no competing interests.

Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology and Pathology

University of Iowa

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

BLS declares that he has no competing interests.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Erasme University Hospital

Brussels

Belgium

Disclosures

TS declares that he has no competing interests.

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