- Kiessling A, Lewitt M, Henriksson P, et al. Case-based training of evidence-based clinical practice in primary care and decreased mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Ann Fam Med 2011;9:211–218. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21555748
- Shuval K, Linn S, Brevis M, et al. Association between primary care physicians' evidence-based medicine knowledge and quality of care. Int J Qual Health Care 2010;22:16–23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19951965
- Barratt A. Evidence based medicine and shared decision making: the challenge of getting both evidence and preferences into health care. Patient Educ Couns 2008;73:407–412. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18845414
- Lockwood D, Armstrong M, Grant A. Integrating evidence based medicine into routine clinical practice: seven years' experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. BMJ 2004;329:1020–1023. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514349
- Lucas BP, Evans AT, Reilly BM, et al. The impact of evidence on physicians' inpatient treatment decisions. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:402–409. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109337
WHAT IS EBM?
- Greenhalgh T. Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis? BMJ 2014;348:g3725 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927763
- Glasziou P, What is EBM? Evidence Based Medicine 2011;16:129-130. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949274
- Dickersin K. Evidence based medicine: increasing, not dictating, choice. BMJ 2007;334:s10 https://www.bmj.com/content/334/suppl_1/s10
- Reilly BM. The essence of EBM. BMJ 2004;329;991–992. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514321
- Sackett DL, Rosenberg W, Gray JA, et al. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996;312:71–72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555924
- Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992;268;2420–2425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1404801
- The history of evidence based medicine - Oral History project from JAMA and The BMJ. Available from https://www.bmj.com/campaign/ebm-history (last accessed 10 March 2017)
CLINICAL QUESTION, SEARCH AND STUDY SELECTION
- Ioannidis, J. The need to consider the wider agenda in systematic reviews and meta-analyses: breadth, timing, and depth of the evidence. BMJ 2010;341:c4875 https://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c4875
- Glanville J, Bayliss S, Booth A, et al. So many filters, so little time: the development of a search filter appraisal checklist. J Med Libr Assoc 2008; 96(4):356–361. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568852/
- O’Connor D, Green S, Higgins JPT (editors). Chapter 5: Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors), Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Intervention Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org
- Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org
- Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ (editors). Chapter 7: Selecting studies and collecting data. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors), Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org.
- Lefebvre C, Glanville J, Wieland LS, et al. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future? Systematic Reviews 2013;2:78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24066664
- Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Asking Focused Questions. Available from https://www.cebm.net/asking-focused-questions/ (last accessed 10 March 2017).
- Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Finding the Evidence 1 – Using PICO to formulate a search question. Available from https://www.cebm.net/finding-the-evidence-1-using-pico-to-formulate-a-search-question/ (last accessed 10 March 2017).
- The InterTASC Information Specialists' Sub-Group (ISSG) Search Filters Resource: Available from https://sites.google.com/a/york.ac.uk/issg-search-filters-resource/ (last accessed 10 March 2017).
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. PubMed Special Queries. Available from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/special_queries.html (last accessed 10 March 2017).
CRITICAL APPRAISAL SKILLS
- Sedgwick P. Bias in experimental study designs: randomized controlled trials with parallel groups. BMJ 2015;351. https://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3869
- Windish D. Searching for the right evidence: how to answer your clinical questions using the 6S hierarchy. Evidence-Based Medicine 2013;18:93-97. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23048189
- Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne JAC (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org.
- Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, et al. What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ 2008;336:995–998. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18456631
- Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries, and systems: the "5S" evolution of information services for evidence-based healthcare decisions. Evid Based Med 2006;11:162–164. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17213159
- Barton S. Which clinical studies provide the best evidence? BMJ 2000;321(7256):255–256. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1118259/
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Assessing the methodological quality of published papers. BMJ 1997;315:305–308. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9274555
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Getting your bearings (deciding what the paper is about). BMJ 1997;315:243–246. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9253275
- Jaeschke R, Guyatt G, Sackett DL. Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1994;271:389-391. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gim/_pdf/JAMA/3A-Diagnostic_Test.pdf
- Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Sackett DL. Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B. What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1994;271:703-707. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gim/_pdf/JAMA/3B-Diagnostic_Test.pdf
- Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Critical Appraisal tools. Available from https://www.cebm.net/critical-appraisal/ (last accessed 10 March 2017)
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. CASP checklists. Available from https://www.casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists (last accessed 10 March 2017)
- Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. PRISMA Statement. Available from https://www.prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/Default.aspx (last accessed 10 March 2017)
- Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Critical Appraisal: Notes and checklists. Available from https://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/checklists.html
- Sedgwick P. What is significance? BMJ 2015;350:h3475 https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h3475
- Sedgwick P. What are the risks? BMJ 2015;350:h2931 https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2931
- Sedgwick P. Clinical significance versus statistical significance. BMJ 2014;348:g2130 https://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g2130
- Understanding statistical terms: 5. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:95–96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654420
- Understanding statistical terms: 4. Diagnostic tests. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:71–72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494344
- Understanding statistical terms: 3. Topics to do with study design. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:59–60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19423679
- Understanding statistical terms: 2. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:35–36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261839
- Understanding statistical terms: 1. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:22–24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19193703
- Hatala R, Keitz S, Wyer P, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 4. Assessing heterogeneity of primary studies in systematic reviews and whether to combine their results. CMAJ 2005;172:661–665. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15738493
- Barratt A, WYer PC, Hatala R, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. Relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. CMAJ 2004;171:353–358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313996
- Montori VM, Kleinbart J, Newman TB, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 2. Measures of precision (confidence intervals). CMAJ 2004;171:611–615. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15367466
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician II: significant relationships and their pitfalls. BMJ 1997;315:422–425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9277611
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician I: different types of data need different statistical tests. BMJ 1997;315:364–366. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/927046
- BMJ Learning Understanding statistics 1: presenting data from clinical trials An interactive module which outlines the basics of different ways of presenting statistical data from a clinical trial.
- BMJ Learning Understanding statistics 2: is there a significant difference? An interactive module which uses practical examples to work through to help you learn how to interpret the results of a trial, including what statistical significance means.
- Perera R, Heneghan C. Interpreting meta-analysis in systematic reviews. Evid Based Med 2008;13:67–69. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515615
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). BMJ 1997;315:672–675. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310574
- GRADE Series. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. https://www.jclinepi.com/content/jce-GRADE-Series
- Walsh, K. Online clinical decision support: how it is used at the point-of-care. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning 2017; 0: 1-2 https://stel.bmj.com/content/early/2017/01/05/bmjstel-2016-000170.info
- McCartney M, Treadwell J, Maskrey N, et al. Making evidence-based medicine work for individual patients. BMJ 2016; 353. https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i2452
- Agoritsas T, Heen AF, Brandt L, et al. Decision aids that really promote shared decision making: the pace quickens. BMJ 2015;350. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25670178
- Stiggelbout AM, Van der Weijden T, De Wit MPT, et al. Shared decision making: really putting patients at the centre of healthcare. BMJ 2012;344 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286508
- Kitson A, Straus SE. The knowledge-to-action cycle: identifying the gaps. CMAJ 2010;182:E73–E77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948812
- Whitely R. Cultural competence, evidence-based medicine, and evidence-based practices. Psychiatr Serv 2007;58:1588–1590. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048561
- Hasnain-Wynia R. Is evidence-based medicine patient-centered and is patient-centered care evidence-based? Health Serv Res 2006;41:1–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16479681
- Guyatt G, Cook D, Haynes B. Evidence-based medicine has come a long way. BMJ 2004;329;990–991. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514320
- Kotaska A. Inappropriate use of randomised trials to evaluate complex phenomena: case study of vaginal breech delivery. BMJ 2004;329:1039–1042. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514356
- Lockwood S. "Evidence of me" in evidence-based medicine? BMJ 2004;329;1033–1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514354
- Slowther A, Ford S, Schofield T. Ethics of evidence-based medicine in the primary care setting. J Med Ethics 2004;30:151–155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082808
- White B. Making evidence-based medicine doable in everyday practice. Fam Pract Manag 2004;11:51–58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15011482
- Schattner A, Fletcher RH. Research evidence and the individual patient. QJM 2003;96:1–5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509644
- Rosenberg W, Donald A. Evidence-based medicine: an approach to clinical problem-solving. BMJ 1995;310:1122–1126. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7742682