Ileus

References

Key articles

Livingston EH, Passaro EP Jr. Postoperative ileus. Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35:121-32. Abstract

Senagore AJ. Pathogenesis and clinical and economic consequences of postoperative ileus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Oct 15;64(20 suppl 13):S3-7.Full text  Abstract

Doorly MG, Senagore AJ. Pathogenesis and clinical and economic consequences of postoperative ileus. Surg Clin North Am. 2012 Apr;92(2):259-72;viii. Abstract

Person B, Wexner SD. The management of postoperative ileus. Curr Probl Surg. 2006 Jan;43(1):6-65. Abstract

Luckey A, Livingston E, Taché Y. Mechanisms and treatment of postoperative ileus. Arch Surg. 2003 Feb;138(2):206-14.Full text  Abstract

Kraft MD. Emerging pharmacologic options for treating postoperative ileus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Oct 15;64(20 suppl 13):S13-20.Full text  Abstract

Traut U, Brügger L, Kunz R, et al. Systemic prokinetic pharmacologic treatment for postoperative adynamic ileus following abdominal surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD004930.Full text  Abstract

Livingston EH, Passaro EP Jr. Postoperative ileus. Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35:121-132. Abstract

Kraft MD. Emerging pharmacologic options for treating postoperative ileus. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64:S13-S20. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Livingston EH, Passaro EP Jr. Postoperative ileus. Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35:121-32. Abstract

3. Artinyan A, Nunoo-Mensah JW, Balasubramaniam S, et al. Prolonged postoperative ileus: definition, risk factors, and predictors of surgery. World J Surg. 2008 Jul;32(7):1495-500. Abstract

4. Wolthuis AM, Bislenghi G, Fieuws S, et al. Incidence of prolonged postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2016 Jan;18(1):O1-9. Abstract

5. Story SK, Chamberlain RS. A comprehensive review of evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat postoperative ileus. Dig Surg. 2009;26(4):265-75.Full text  Abstract

6. Senagore AJ. Pathogenesis and clinical and economic consequences of postoperative ileus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Oct 15;64(20 suppl 13):S3-7.Full text  Abstract

7. Chaudhry R, Zaki J, Wegner R, et al. Gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery: a nationwide population-based analysis of morbidity and mortality predictors. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2017 Apr 13;31(4):1268-74. Abstract

8. Dong G, Liu C, Xu B, et al. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012 Oct 9;7:108.Full text  Abstract

9. Parvizi J, Han SB, Tarity TD, et al. Postoperative ileus after total joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008 Apr;23(3):360-5. Abstract

10. Fineberg SJ, Nandyala SV, Kurd MF, et al. Incidence and risk factors for postoperative ileus following anterior, posterior, and circumferential lumbar fusion. Spine J. 2013 Oct 31;14(8):1680-5.Full text  Abstract

11. Brady JT, Dosokey EM, Crawshaw BP, et al. The use of alvimopan for postoperative ileus in small and large bowel resections. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Oct 21;9(11):1351-8. Abstract

12. Iyer S, Saunders WB, Stemkowski S. Economic burden of postoperative ileus associated with colectomy in the United States. J Manag Care Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug;15(6):485-94. Abstract

13. Doorly MG, Senagore AJ. Pathogenesis and clinical and economic consequences of postoperative ileus. Surg Clin North Am. 2012 Apr;92(2):259-72;viii. Abstract

14. Kurt M, Litmathe J, Roehrborn A, et al. Abdominal complications following open-heart surgery: a report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Acta Cardiol. 2006 Jun;61(3):301-6. Abstract

15. Bederman SS, Betsy M, Winiarsky R, et al. Postoperative ileus in the lower extremity arthroplasty patient. J Arthroplasty. 2001 Dec;16(8):1066-70. Abstract

16. Di Nardo G, Blandizzi C, Volta U, et al. Review article: molecular, pathological and therapeutic features of human enteric neuropathies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jul;28(1):25-42.Full text  Abstract

17. Person B, Wexner SD. The management of postoperative ileus. Curr Probl Surg. 2006 Jan;43(1):6-65. Abstract

18. Le Blanc-Louvry I, Denis P, Ducrotte P. The role of remote gut inflammation in duodenojejunal dysmotility. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2002 Apr;14(2):143-50. Abstract

19. Wang X, Gong Z, Wu K, et al. GI dysmotility in patients with acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jan;18(1):57-62. Abstract

20. Luckey A, Livingston E, Taché Y. Mechanisms and treatment of postoperative ileus. Arch Surg. 2003 Feb;138(2):206-14.Full text  Abstract

21. Ljungqvist O, Scott M, Fearon KC. Enhanced recovery after surgery: a review. JAMA Surg. 2017 Mar 1;152(3):292-8. Abstract

22. Chan KC, Cheng YJ, Huang GT, et al. The effect of IVPCA morphine on post-hysterectomy bowel function. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 2002 Jun;40(2):61-4. Abstract

23. Senagore AJ, Delaney CP, Mekhail N, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing epidural anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic segmental colectomy. Br J Surg. 2003 Oct;90(10):1195-9. Abstract

24. Marret E, Remy C, Bonnet F. Meta-analysis of epidural analgesia versus parenteral opioid analgesia after colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2007 Jun;94(6):665-73.Full text  Abstract

25. Gendall KA, Kennedy RR, Watson AJ, et al. The effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Dis. 2007 Sep;9(7):584-98;discussion 598-600. Abstract

26. Carli F, Trudel JL, Belliveau P. The effect of intraoperative thoracic epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia on bowel function after colorectal surgery: a prospective, randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001 Aug;44(8):1083-9. Abstract

27. Schlachta CM, Burpee SE, Fernandez C, et al. Optimizing recovery after laparoscopic colon surgery (ORAL-CS): effect of intravenous ketorolac on length of hospital stay. Surg Endosc. 2007 Dec;21(12):2212-9. Abstract

28. Lee A, Cooper MG, Craig JC, et al. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on postoperative renal function in adults with normal renal function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD002765.Full text  Abstract

29. Chen JY, Wu GJ, Mok MS, et al. Effect of adding ketorolac to intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia on bowel function in colorectal surgery patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Apr;49(4):546-51. Abstract

30. Joh YG, Lindsetmo RO, Stulberg J, et al. Standardized postoperative pathway: accelerating recovery after ileostomy closure. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Dec;51(12):1786-9. Abstract

31. Tjandra JJ, Chan MK. Systematic review on the short-term outcome of laparoscopic resection for colon and rectosigmoid cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2006;8:375-388. Abstract

32. Veldkamp R, Kuhry E, Hop WC, et al. Laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:477-484. Abstract

33. Tilney HS, Lovegrove RE, Purkayastha S, et al. Laparoscopic vs open subtotal colectomy for benign and malignant disease. Colorectal Dis. 2006;8:441-450. Abstract

34. Alhashemi M, Fiore JF Jr, Safa N, et al. Incidence and predictors of prolonged postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery in the context of an enhanced recovery pathway. Surg Endosc. 2018 Oct 17.Full text  Abstract

35. Orji EO, Olabode TO, Kuti O, et al. A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after cesarean section. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Jan;22(1):65-71. Abstract

36. Boelens PG, Heesakkers FF, Luyer MD, et al. Reduction of postoperative ileus by early enteral nutrition in patients undergoing major rectal surgery: prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2014 Apr;259(4):649-55. Abstract

37. Reissman P, Teoh TA, Cohen SM, et al. Is early oral feeding safe after elective colorectal surgery? A prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1995;222:73-77.Full text  Abstract

38. Feo CV, Romanini B, Sortini D, et al. Early oral feeding after colorectal resection: a randomized controlled study. ANZ J Surg. 2004;74:298-301. Abstract

39. Stewart BT, Woods RJ, Collopy BT, et al. Early feeding after elective open colorectal resections: a prospective randomized trial. Aust N Z J Surg. 1998;68:125-128. Abstract

40. Han-Geurts IJ, Hop WC, Kok NF, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the impact of early enteral feeding on postoperative ileus and recovery. Br J Surg. 2007;94:555-561. Abstract

41. Gannon RH. Current strategies for preventing or ameliorating postoperative ileus: a multimodal approach. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Oct 15;64(20 suppl 13):S8-12.Full text  Abstract

42. Holte K, Kehlet H. Postoperative ileus: a preventable event. Br J Surg. 2000 Nov;87(11):1480-93. Abstract

43. Chen JY, Ko TL, Wen YR, et al. Opioid-sparing effects of ketorolac and its correlation with the recovery of postoperative bowel function in colorectal surgery patients: a prospective randomized double-blinded study. Clin J Pain. 2009 Jul-Aug;25(6):485-9. Abstract

44. Zingg U, Miskovic D, Hamel CT, et al. Influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on postoperative pain relief and ileus after laparoscopic colorectal resection: benefit with epidural analgesia. Surg Endosc. 2009 Feb;23(2):276-82.Full text  Abstract

45. Zingg U, Miskovic D, Hamel CT, et al. Influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on postoperative pain relief and ileus after laparoscopic colorectal resection: benefit with epidural analgesia. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:276-282. Abstract

46. Senagore AJ, Delaney CP, Mekhail N, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing epidural anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic segmental colectomy. Br J Surg. 2003;90:1195-1199. Abstract

47. Marret E, Remy C, Bonnet F. Meta-analysis of epidural analgesia versus parenteral opioid analgesia after colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2007;94:665-673. Abstract

48. Gendall KA, Kennedy RR, Watson AJ, et al. The effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Dis. 2007;9:584-598. Abstract

49. Carli F, Trudel JL, Belliveau P. The effect of intraoperative thoracic epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia on bowel function after colorectal surgery: a prospective, randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:1083-1089. Abstract

50. Marret E, Rolin M, Beaussier M, et al. Meta-analysis of intravenous lidocaine and postoperative recovery after abdominal surgery. Br J Surg. 2008 Nov;95(11):1331-8. Abstract

51. Drake TM, Ward AE. Pharmacological management to prevent ileus in major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016 Jun;20(6):1253-64. Abstract

52. Short V, Herbert G, Perry R, et al. Chewing gum for postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD006506.Full text  Abstract

53. Kraft MD. Emerging pharmacologic options for treating postoperative ileus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Oct 15;64(20 suppl 13):S13-20.Full text  Abstract

54. US Food and Drug Administration. Summary review for regulatory action: Entereg. May 2008 [internet publication].Full text

55. Yeh YC, Klinger EV, Reddy P. Pharmacologic options to prevent postoperative ileus. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Sep;43(9):1474-85. Abstract

56. Delaney CP, Weese JL, Hyman NH, et al. Phase III trial of alvimopan, a novel, peripherally acting, mu opioid antagonist, for postoperative ileus after major abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jun;48(6):1114-25;discussion 1125-6;author reply 1127-9. Abstract

57. Buchler MWS, Seiler CM, Monson JR, et al. Clinical trial: Alvimopan for the management of post-operative ileus after abdominal surgery: results of an international randomized, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug 1;28(3):312-25. Abstract

58. Wolff BG, Michelassi F, Gerkin TM, et al. Results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of major abdominal surgery and postoperative ileus. Ann Surg. 2004 Oct;240(4):728-34;discussion 734-5.Full text  Abstract

59. Traut U, Brügger L, Kunz R, et al. Systemic prokinetic pharmacologic treatment for postoperative adynamic ileus following abdominal surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD004930.Full text  Abstract

60. Ludwig K, Viscusi ER, Wolff BG, et al. Alvimopan for the management of postoperative ileus after bowel resection: characterization of clinical benefit by pooled responder analysis. World J Surg. 2010 Sep;34(9):2185-90.Full text  Abstract

61. Vaughan-Shaw PG, Fecher IC, Harris S, et al. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of the opioid receptor antagonist alvimopan in reducing hospital length of stay and time to GI recovery in patients enrolled in a standardized accelerated recovery program after abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012 May;55(5):611-20. Abstract

62. Abodeely A, Schechter S, Klipfel A, et al. Does alvimopan enhance return of bowel function in laparoscopic right colectomy? Am Surg. 2011 Nov;77(11):1460-2. Abstract

63. Pirrera B, Alagna V, Lucchi A, et al. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block versus thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in laparoscopic colon surgery in the ERAS program. Surg Endosc. 2018 Jan;32(1):376-82. Abstract

64. Vasquez W, Hernandez AV, Garcia-Sabrido JL, et al. Is gum chewing useful for ileus after elective colorectal surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009 Apr;13(4):649-56. Abstract

65. Purkayastha S, Tilney HS, Darzi AW, et al. Meta-analysis of randomized studies evaluating chewing gum to enhance postoperative recovery following colectomy. Arch Surg. 2008 Aug;143(8):788-93.Full text  Abstract

66. Noble EJH, Harris R, Hosie KB, et al. Gum chewing reduces postoperative ileus? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2009 Apr;7(2):100-5.Full text  Abstract

67. Fitzgerald JE, Ahmed I. Systematic review and meta-analysis of chewing-gum therapy in the reduction of postoperative paralytic ileus following gastrointestinal surgery. World J Surg. 2009 Dec;33(12):2557-66. Abstract

68. van den Heijkant TC, Costes LM, van der Lee DG, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of gum chewing on postoperative ileus and inflammation in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2015 Feb;102(3):202-11. Abstract

69. Zhu YP, Wang WJ, Zhang SL, et al. Effects of gum chewing on postoperative bowel motility after caesarean section: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BJOG. 2014 Jun;121(7):787-92.Full text  Abstract

70. Andersson T, Bjerså K, Falk K, et al. Effects of chewing gum against postoperative ileus after pancreaticoduodenectomy - a randomized controlled trial. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Feb 10;8:37.Full text  Abstract

71. Frager DH, Baer JW, Rothpearl A, et al. Distinction between postoperative ileus and mechanical small-bowel obstruction: value of CT compared with clinical and other radiographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Apr;164(4):891-4.Full text  Abstract

72. Sebastian VA, Nebab KJ, Goldfarb MA. Intestinal obstruction and ileus: role of computed tomography scan in diagnosis and management. Am Surg. 2007 Dec;73(12):1210-4. Abstract

73. Golzarian J, Scott HW Jr, Richards WO. Hypermagnesemia-induced paralytic ileus. Dig Dis Sci. 1994 May;39(5):1138-42. Abstract

74. Seres DS. Surrogate nutrition markers, malnutrition, and adequacy of nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;20(3):308-13. Abstract

75. De Giorgio R, Knowles CH. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Br J Surg. 2009 Mar;96(3):229-39. Abstract

76. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee; Harrison ME, Anderson MA, Appalaneni V, et al. The role of endoscopy in the management of patients with known and suspected colonic obstruction and pseudo-obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Apr;71(4):669-79.Full text  Abstract

77. Livingston EH, Passaro EP Jr. Postoperative ileus. Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35:121-132. Abstract

78. Artinyan A, Nunoo-Mensah JW, Balasubramaniam S, et al. Prolonged postoperative ileus: definition, risk factors, and predictors of surgery. World J Surg. 2008;32:1495-1500. Abstract

79. Katz DS, Baker ME, Rosen MP, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria: suspected small-bowel obstruction. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

80. Nelson R, Edwards S, Tse B. Prophylactic nasogastric decompression after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD004929.Full text  Abstract

81. Sandstrom R, Drott C, Hyltander A, et al. The effect of postoperative intravenous feeding (TPN) on outcome following major surgery evaluated in a randomized study. Ann Surg. 1993 Feb;217(2):185-95.Full text  Abstract

82. Ceresoli M, Coccolini F, Catena F, et al. Water-soluble contrast agent in adhesive small bowel obstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic value. Am J Surg. 2016 Jun;211(6):1114-25. Abstract

83. Biondo S, Miquel J, Espin-Basany E, et al. A double-blinded randomized clinical study on the therapeutic effect of gastrografin in prolonged postoperative ileus after elective colorectal surgery. World J Surg. 2016 Jan;40(1):206-14. Abstract

84. Vather R, Josephson R, Jaung R, et al. Gastrografin in prolonged postoperative ileus: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2015 Jul;262(1):23-30. Abstract

85. Cheape JD, Wexner SD, James K, et al. Does metoclopramide reduce the length of ileus after colorectal surgery? A prospective randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 1991 Jun;34(6):437-41. Abstract

86. Seta ML, Kale-Pradhan PB. Efficacy of metoclopramide in postoperative ileus after exploratory laparotomy. Pharmacotherapy. 2001 Oct;21(10):1181-6. Abstract

87. Smith AJ, Nissan A, Lanouette NM, et al. Prokinetic effect of erythromycin after colorectal surgery: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000 Mar;43(3):333-7. Abstract

88. Lightfoot AJ, Eno M, Kreder KJ, et al. Treatment of postoperative ileus after bowel surgery with low-dose intravenous erythromycin. Urology. 2007 Apr;69(4):611-5. Abstract

89. Kraft MD. Emerging pharmacologic options for treating postoperative ileus. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64:S13-S20. Abstract

90. Cheape JD, Wexner SD, James K, et al. Does metoclopramide reduce the length of ileus after colorectal surgery? A prospective randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 1991;34:437-441. Abstract

91. Seta ML, Kale-Pradhan PB. Efficacy of metoclopramide in postoperative ileus after exploratory laparotomy. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:1181-1186. Abstract

92. Smith AJ, Nissan A, Lanouette NM, et al. Prokinetic effect of erythromycin after colorectal surgery: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:333-337. Abstract

93. Lightfoot AJ, Eno M, Kreder KJ, et al. Treatment of postoperative ileus after bowel surgery with low-dose intravenous erythromycin. Urology. 2007;69:611-615. Abstract

94. NHS Improvement. Patient Safety review and response: April to September 2018. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text

95. NHS England. Patient safety alert on placement devices for nasogastric tube insertion. 5 December 2013 [internet publication].Full text

96. Zingg U, Miskovic D, Pasternak I, et al. Effect of bisacodyl on postoperative bowel motility in elective colorectal surgery: a prospective, randomized trial. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008 Dec;23(12):1175-83. Abstract

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