Complications

Complications table
ComplicationTimeframeLikelihood

acute respiratory failure

short termmedium

Reported in 25% to 95% of confirmed cases that required hospitalization.[8][26][33]

Median time to invasive mechanical ventilation was 7 days in a cohort of 47 patients.[8]

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in some cases; however, efficacy has not been confirmed.[26][81]

Risk factors include age ≥50 years, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and obesity.[5][8][9][26]

acute respiratory distress syndrome

short termmedium

New or worsening respiratory symptoms within one week of presentation. Chest x-ray shows bilateral opacities.[92]

High-flow oxygen (up to 50 mL/minute) is recommended in some patients, although mechanical ventilation and intubation is usually required.[92]

acute renal failure

short termmedium

Initially reported in a few case reports.[14][30][82] Has since been reported in 58% of critically ill patients in one study, and 26% of patients in one cohort.[81][162]

Possibly due to the presence of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) receptors in renal epithelial cells.[163]

Detection of the virus in urine samples has been previously documented.[161]

multiorgan failure

short termlow

Occurs in a minority of patients late in the course of illness.

Underlying mechanism of action is unknown.

Usually presents with thrombocytopenia, prolonged coagulation profile, and circulatory collapse.[26][33][81]

Patients may require vasopressor and inotrope support.

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