Spina bifida and neural tube defects

References

Key articles

Ozek MM, Cinalli G, Maixner VJ, eds. Spina bifida management and outcome. Milan, Italy: Springer Press; 2008.

US Preventive Services Task Force; Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017 Jan 10;317(2):183-9.Full text  Abstract

Douglas Wilson R, Van Mieghem T, Langlois S, et al. Guideline no. 410: prevention, screening, diagnosis, and pregnancy management for fetal neural tube defects. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2021 Jan;43(1):124-39.e8.Full text  Abstract

AIUM-ACR-ACOG-SMFM-SRU Practice Parameter for the performance of standard diagnostic obstetric ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med. 2018 Nov;37(11):E13-24.Full text  Abstract

Spina Bifida Association. Guidelines for the care of people with spina bifida. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Adzick NS, Thom EA, Spong CY, et al. A randomized trial of prenatal versus postnatal repair of myelomeningocele. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 17;364(11):993-1004.Full text  Abstract

Grivell RM, Andersen C, Dodd JM. Prenatal versus postnatal repair procedures for spina bifida for improving infant and maternal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 28;(10):CD008825.Full text  Abstract

Botto LD, Moore CA, Khoury MJ, et al. Neural tube defects. N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 11;341(20):1509-19. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Shurtleff DB, Lemire R, Warkany J. Embryology, etiology, and epidemiology. In: Shurtleff BD, ed. Myelodysplasias and exstrophies: significance, prevention, and treatment. Orlando, FL: Grune & Statton; 1986:39-64.

2. Botto LD, Moore CA, Khoury MJ, et al. Neural tube defects. N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 11;341(20):1509-19. Abstract

3. Ozek MM, Cinalli G, Maixner VJ, eds. Spina bifida management and outcome. Milan, Italy: Springer Press; 2008.

4. Mai CT, Isenburg JL, Canfield MA, et al. National population-based estimates for major birth defects, 2010-2014. Birth Defects Res. 2019 Nov 1;111(18):1420-35.Full text  Abstract

5. Mitchell LE. Epidemiology of neural tube defects. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2005 May 15;135C(1):88-94.Full text  Abstract

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Racial/ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of spina bifida - United States, 1995-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Jan 9;57(53):1409-13.Full text  Abstract

7. Shin M, Besser LM, Siffel C, et al; Congenital Anomaly Multistate Prevalence and Survival Collaborative. Prevalence of spina bifida among children and adolescents in 10 regions in the United States. Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):274-9. Abstract

8. Sebold CD, Melvin EC, Siegel D, et al. Recurrence risks for neural tube defects in siblings of patients with lipomyelomeningocele. Genet Med. 2005 Jan;7(1):64-7. Abstract

9. Cowchock S, Ainbender E, Prescott G, et al. The recurrence risk for neural tube defects in the United States: a collaborative study. Am J Med Genet. 1980;5(3):309-14. Abstract

10. Copp AJ, Adzick NS, Chitty LS, et al. Spina bifida. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Apr 30;1:15007.Full text  Abstract

11. Carter CO, Roberts JA. The risk of recurrence after two children with central-nervous-system malformations. Lancet. 1967 Feb 11;1(7485):306-8. Abstract

12. Nevin NC, Johnston WP. Risk of recurrence after two children with central nervous system malformations in an area of high incidence. J Med Genet. 1980 Apr;17(2):87-92.Full text  Abstract

13. Olney RS, Mulinare J. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid supplementation, and vitamin supplement use. Semin Perinatol. 2002 Aug;26(4):277-85. Abstract

14. Lary JM, Edmonds LD. Prevalence of spina bifida at birth - United States, 1983-1990: a comparison of two surveillance systems. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1996 Apr 19;45(2):15-26.Full text  Abstract

15. Greene WB, Terry RC, Demasi RA, et al. Effect of race and gender on neurological level in myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991 Feb;33(2):110-7. Abstract

16. Nikkilä A, Rydhström H, Källén B. Incidence of spina bifida in Sweden 1973-2003: the effect of prenatal diagnosis. Eur J Public Health. 2006 Dec;16(6):660-2.Full text  Abstract

17. Cragan JD, Robert HE, Edmonds LD, et al. Surveillance for anencephaly and spina bifida and the impact of prenatal diagnosis - United States, 1985-1994. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1995 Aug 25;44(4):1-13.Full text  Abstract

18. Williams J, Mai CT, Mulinare J, et al. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Jan 16;64(1):1-5.Full text  Abstract

19. De Wals P, Tairou F, Van Allen MI, et al. Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 12;357(2):135-42.Full text  Abstract

20. Boulet SL, Yang Q, Mai C, et al. Trends in the postfortification prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the United States. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Jul;82(7):527-32. Abstract

21. Field MS, Stover PJ. Safety of folic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Feb;1414(1):59-71.Full text  Abstract

22. Weggemans RM, Schaafsma G, Kromhout D, et al. Toward an optimal use of folic acid: an advisory report of the Health Council of the Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):1034-6.Full text  Abstract

23. Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, et al. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):193-200.Full text  Abstract

24. Kennedy DA, Stern SJ, Moretti M, et al. Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011 Feb;35(1):2-10. Abstract

25. Bell KN, Oakley GP Jr. Update on prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009 Jan;85(1):102-7. Abstract

26. Khoshnood B, Loane M, de Walle H, et al. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study. BMJ. 2015 Nov 24;351:h5949.Full text  Abstract

27. Moore LL, Singer MR, Bradlee ML, et al. A prospective study of the risk of congenital defects associated with maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology. 2000 Nov;11(6):689-94. Abstract

28. Farrell T, Neale L, Cundy T. Congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Diab Med. 2002 Apr;19(4):322-6. Abstract

29. Watkins ML, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, et al. Maternal obesity and risk for birth defects. Pediatrics. 2003 May;111(5 Pt 2):1152-8. Abstract

30. Shaw GM, Quach T, Nelson V, et. al. Neural tube defects associated with maternal periconceptional dietary intake of simple sugars and glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):972-8.Full text  Abstract

31. Botto LD, Lisi A, Robert-Gnansia E, et al. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations: are the recommendations working? 2005 Mar 12;330(7491):571.Full text  Abstract

32. Inskip HM, Crozier SR, Godfrey KM. Women's compliance with nutrition and lifestyle recommendations before pregnancy: general population cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Feb 12;338:b481.Full text  Abstract

33. Mitchell LE, Adzick NS, Melchionne J, et al. Spina bifida. Lancet. 2004 Nov 20-26;364(9448):1885-95. Abstract

34. Canfield MA, Ramadhani TA, Shaw GM. Anencephaly and spina bifida among Hispanics: maternal, sociodemographic, and acculturation factors in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009 Jul;85(7):637-46. Abstract

35. Au KS, Tran PX, Tsai CC, et al. Characteristics of a spina bifida population including North American Caucasian and Hispanic individuals. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Oct;82(10):692-700.Full text  Abstract

36. Hall JG, Solehdin F. Genetics of neural tube defects. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 1998;4:269-81.

37. Ornoy A. Neuroteratogens in man: an overview with special emphasis on the teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drugs in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Aug;22(2):214-26. Abstract

38. Lloyd ME, Carr M, McElhatton P. The effects of methotrexate on pregnancy, fertility and lactation. QJM. 1999 Oct;92(10):551-63.Full text  Abstract

39. Becerra JE, Khoury MJ, Cordero JF, et al. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and the risks for specific birth defects: a population-based care-control study. Pediatrics. 1990 Jan;85(1):1-9. Abstract

40. Wasserman CR, Shaw GM, Selvin S, et al. Socioeconomic status, neighborhood social conditions, and neural tube defects. Am J Public Health. 1998 Nov;88(11):1674-80.Full text  Abstract

41. Suarez L, Felker M, Hendricks K. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposure on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol.2004 Oct;70(10):815-9. Abstract

42. Smithells RW, Sheppard S, Schorah CJ. Vitamin deficiencies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child. 1976 Dec;51(12):944-50.Full text  Abstract

43. Smithells RW, Nevin NC, Seller MJ, et al. Further experience of vitamin supplementation for prevention of neural tube defect occurrence. Lancet. 1983 May 7;1(8332):1027-31. Abstract

44. Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD, et al. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA. 1988 Dec 2;260(21):3141-5. Abstract

45. Suarez L, Hendricks K, Felkner M, et al. Maternal serum vitamin B12 levels and risk for neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Ann Epidemiol. 2003 Feb;13(2):81-8. Abstract

46. Boyles AL, Hammock P, Speer MC. Candidate gene analysis in human neural tube defects. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2005 May 15;135C(1):9-23.Full text  Abstract

47. Davidson CM, Northrup H, King TM, et al. Genes in glucose metabolism and association with spina bifida. Reprod Sci. 2008 Jan;15(1):51-8.Full text  Abstract

48. Ozek MM, Cinalli G, Maixner VJ, eds. Spina bifida management and outcome. Milan, Italy: Springer Press; 2008.

49. Williams H. A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res. 2008 Apr 11;5:7.Full text  Abstract

50. de Wit OA, den Dunnen WF, Sollie KM, et al. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res. 2008 Mar 1;5:4.Full text  Abstract

51. Hasan KM, Eluvathingal TJ, Kramer LA, et al. White matter microstructural abnormalities in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus: a diffusion tensor tractography study of the association pathways. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Apr;27(4):700-9.Full text  Abstract

52. Greene ND, Stanier P, Copp AJ. Genetics of human neural tube defects. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Oct 15;18(R2):R113-29.Full text  Abstract

53. Ross ME. Gene-environment interactions, folate metabolism and the embryonic nervous system. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2010 Jul-Aug;2(4):471-80.Full text  Abstract

54. US Preventive Services Task Force; Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017 Jan 10;317(2):183-9.Full text  Abstract

55. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council vitamin study. Lancet. 1991 Jul 20;338(8760):131-7. Abstract

56. Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for the use of folic acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992 Sep 11;41(RR-14):1-7.Full text  Abstract

57. Chen CP. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I). Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar;47(1):1-9.Full text  Abstract

58. Melvin EC, George TM, Worley G, et al. Genetic studies in neural tube defects. NTD Collaborative Group. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000 Jan;32(1):1-9. Abstract

59. Hall JG, Friedman JM, Kenna BA, et al. Clinical, genetic, and epidemiological factors in neural tube defects. Am J Hum Genet. 1988 Dec;43(6):827-37.Full text  Abstract

60. Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, et al. Cognitive function at 3 years of age after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 16;360(16):1597-605. Abstract

61. Stothard KJ, Tennant PW, Bell R, et al. Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009 Feb 11;301(6):636-50. Abstract

62. Chen CP. Maternal diabetes and neural tube defects: prenatal diagnosis of lumbosacral myelomeningocele, ventriculomegaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation, and foot deformities in a pregnancy with poor maternal metabolic control, and review of the literature. Genet Couns. 2005;16(3):313-6. Abstract

63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate - United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 May 7;53(17):362-5.Full text  Abstract

64. Centeno Tablante E, Pachón H, Guetterman HM, et al. Fortification of wheat and maize flour with folic acid for population health outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 1;(7):CD012150.Full text  Abstract

65. World Health Organization. Guideline: fortification of wheat flour with vitamins and minerals as a public health strategy. Jun 2022 [internet publication].Full text

66. Douglas Wilson R, Van Mieghem T, Langlois S, et al. Guideline no. 410: prevention, screening, diagnosis, and pregnancy management for fetal neural tube defects. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2021 Jan;43(1):124-39.e8.Full text  Abstract

67. Mills JL, Signore CC. Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 20;350(21):2209-11. Abstract

68. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility problems: assessment and treatment Clinical guideline [CG156]. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

69. Mehta TS, Levine D. Imaging of fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly: a guide to management and outcome. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005 Oct;10(5):421-8. Abstract

70. Blaicher W, Mittermayer C, Messerschmidt A. Fetal skeletal deformities - the diagnostic accuracy of prenatal ultrasonography and fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Ultraschall Med. 2004 Jun;25(3):195-9. Abstract

71. AIUM-ACR-ACOG-SMFM-SRU Practice Parameter for the performance of standard diagnostic obstetric ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med. 2018 Nov;37(11):E13-24.Full text  Abstract

72. Norem CT, Schoen EJ, Walton DL, et al. Routine ultrasonography compared with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein for neural tube defect screening. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct;106(4):747-52. Abstract

73. Bruner JP, Tulipan N, Dabrowiak ME, et al. Upper level of the spina bifida defect: how good are we? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;24(6):612-7. Abstract

74. Chen CP. Prenatal diagnosis, fetal surgery, recurrence risk and differential diagnosis of neural tube defects. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;47(3):283-90.Full text  Abstract

75. Spina Bifida Association. Guidelines for the care of people with spina bifida. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

76. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 162: prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 May;127(5):e108-22. Abstract

77. Committee on Genetics and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Committee opinion no.682: microarrays and next-generation sequencing technology: the use of advanced genetic diagnostic tools in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;128(6):e262-8.Full text  Abstract

78. Zugazaga Cortazar A, Martín Martinez C, Duran Feliubadalo C, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects. Insights Imaging. 2013 Apr;4(2):225-37.Full text  Abstract

79. Reddy UM, Abuhamad AZ, Levine D, et al; Fetal Imaging Workshop Invited Participants. Fetal imaging: Executive summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Radiology, Society for Pediatric Radiology, and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Fetal Imaging Workshop. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May;210(5):387-97. Abstract

80. Chao TT, Dashe JS, Adams RC, et al. Fetal spine findings on MRI and associated outcomes in children with open neural tube defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Nov;197(5):W956-61.Full text  Abstract

81. Stevenson KL. Chiari type II malformation: past, present, and future. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Feb 15;16(2):E5. Abstract

82. Dias MS. Neurosurgical management of myelomeningocele (spina bifida). Pediatr Rev. 2005 Feb;26(2):50-60. Abstract

83. Adzick NS, Thom EA, Spong CY, et al. A randomized trial of prenatal versus postnatal repair of myelomeningocele. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 17;364(11):993-1004.Full text  Abstract

84. Pollack IF, Kinnunen D, Albright AL. The effect of early craniocervical decompression on functional outcome in neonates and young infants with myelodysplasia and symptomatic Chiari II malformations: results from a prospective series. Neurosurgery. 1996 Apr;38(4):703-10. Abstract

85. American College of Radiology; American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine; Society for Pediatric Radiology; Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound. ACR–AIUM–SPR–SRU practice parameter for the performance of an ultrasound examination of the neonatal and infant spine. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

86. Joseph DB. Current approaches to the urologic care of children with spina bifida. Curr Urol Rep. 2008 Mar;9(2):151-7. Abstract

87. Frimberger D, Cheng E, Kropp BP. The current management of the neurogenic bladder in children with spina bifida. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2012 Aug;59(4):757-67. Abstract

88. Visconti D, Noia G, Triarico S, et al. Sexuality, pre-conception counseling and urological management of pregnancy for young women with spina bifida. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Aug;163(2):129-33. Abstract

89. Trivedi J, Thompson JD, Slakey JB, et al. Clinical and radiographic predictors of scoliosis in patients with myelomeningocele. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Aug;84(8):1389-94. Abstract

90. Tortori-Donati P, Fondellia MP, Rossia A, et al. Segmental spinal dysgenesis: neuroradiologic findings with clinical and embryologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Mar;20(3):445-56.Full text  Abstract

91. Ryan KD, Plosky C, Emans JB. Myelodysplasia - the musculoskeletal problem: habilitation from infancy to adulthood. Phys Ther. 1991 Dec;71(12):935-46. Abstract

92. Battibugli S, Gryfakis N, Dias L, et al. Functional gait comparison between children with myelomeningocele: shunt versus no shunt. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Oct;49(10):764-9.Full text  Abstract

93. Harstall C; Institute of Health Economics (Canada). First and second trimester prenatal screening for trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and open neural tube defects. September 2012 [internet publication].Full text

94. Cameron M, Moran P. Prenatal screening and diagnosis of neural tube defects. Prenat Diagn. 2009 Apr;29(4):402-11. Abstract

95. Tulipan N, Wellons JC 3rd, Thom EA, et al; MOMS Investigators. Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele and the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Dec;16(6):613-20.Full text  Abstract

96. British Columbia Prenatal Genetic Screening Program. Prenatal screening for Down syndrome, trisomy 18, and open neural tube defects. June 2020 [internet publication].Full text

97. Forrester MB, Merz RD. Prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of neural tube defects in Hawaii, 1986-1997. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2000 May-Jun;15(3):146-51. Abstract

98. Spinner SS, Miesnik SR, Koh JG, et al. Maternal, fetal, and neonatal care in open fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012 May-Jun;41(3):447-54. Abstract

99. Adzick NS. Fetal surgery for spina bifida: past, present, future. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 Feb;22(1):10-7. Abstract

100. Brock JW 3rd, Carr MC, Adzick NS, et al; MOMS Investigators. Bladder function after fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. Pediatrics. 2015 Oct;136(4):e906-13. Abstract

101. Grivell RM, Andersen C, Dodd JM. Prenatal versus postnatal repair procedures for spina bifida for improving infant and maternal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 28;(10):CD008825.Full text  Abstract

102. Lingman G. Management of pregnancy and labour in cases diagnosed with major fetal malformation. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr;17(2):143-6. Abstract

103. Shaer CM, Chescheir N, Erickson K, et al. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practice and knowledge regarding spina bifida. Am J Perinatol. 2006 Aug;23(6):355-62. Abstract

104. Warf BC, Stagno V, Mugamba J. Encephalocele in Uganda: ethnic distinctions in lesion location, endoscopic management of hydrocephalus, and survival in 110 consecutive children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011 Jan;7(1):88-93. Abstract

105. Vogel TW, Bahuleyan B, Robinson S, et al. The role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Jul;12(1):54-61. Abstract

106. Drake JM, Kulkarni AV, Kestle J. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy vs ventriculoperitoneal shunt in pediatric patients, a decision analysis. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009 Apr;25(4):467-72. Abstract

107. Jenkinson MD, Hayhurst C, Al-Jumaily M, et al. The role of ETV in adult patients with hydrocephalus. J Neurosurgery. 2009 May;110(5):861-6 Abstract

108. Drake JM, Kestle JR, Milner R, et al. Randomized trial of cerebrospinal fluid shunt valve design in pediatric hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 1998 Aug;43(2):294-303. Abstract

109. Hankinson T, Tubbs RS, Wellons JC. Duraplasty or not? An evidence-based review of the pediatric Chiari I malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011 Jan;27(1):35-40. Abstract

110. Franco I, Horowitz M, Grady R, et al. Efficacy and safety of oxybutynin in children with detrusor hyperreflexia secondary to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. J Urol. 2005 Jan;173(1):221-5. Abstract

111. Sturm RM, Cheng EY. The management of the pediatric neurogenic bladder. Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep. 2016;11:225-33.Full text  Abstract

112. Hopps CV, Kropp KA. Preservation of renal function in children with myelomeningocele managed with basic newborn evaluation and close followup. J Urol. 2003 Jan;169(1):305-8. Abstract

113. Dik P, Klijn AJ, van Gool JD, et al. Early start to therapy preserves kidney function in spina bifida patients. Eur Urol. 2006 May;49(5):908-13. Abstract

114. Madden-Fuentes RJ, McNamara ER, Lloyd JC, et al. Variation in definitions of urinary tract infections in spina bifida patients: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2013 Jul;132(1):132-9. Abstract

115. Swaroop VT, Dias L. Orthopaedic management of spina bifida-part II: foot and ankle deformities. J Child Orthop. 2011 Dec;5(6):403-14.Full text  Abstract

116. Lorente Molto FJ, Martinez GI. Retrospective review of L3 myelomeningocele in three groups: should posterolateral iliopsoas transfer still be indicated to stabilize the hip? J Pediatr Orthop B. 2005 May;14(3):177-84. Abstract

117. Dias L. Hip dislocation in spina bifida: when is surgery required and what type of surgery should be performed? Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2011 Mar-Apr;13(2):101-3. Abstract

118. Ambartsumyan L, Rodriguez L. Bowel management in children with spina bifida. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2018;11(4):293-301. Abstract

119. Liptak GS, Garver K, Dosa NP. Spina bifida grown up. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013 Apr;34(3):206-15. Abstract

120. Webb TS. Medical care of adults with spina bifida. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2009;2(1):3-11. Abstract

121. Webb TS. Optimizing health care for adults with spina bifida. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16(1):76-81. Abstract

122. Dicianno BE, Gaines A, Collins DM, et al. Mobility, assistive technology use, and social integration among adults with spina bifida. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Jul;88(7):533-41. Abstract

123. Dicianno BE, Wilson R. Hospitalizations of adults with spina bifida and congenital spinal cord anomalies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Apr;91(4):529-35. Abstract

124. Simon TD, Lamb S, Murphy NA, et al. Who will care for me next? Transitioning to adulthood with hydrocephalus. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov;124(5):1431-7.Full text  Abstract

125. Verhoef M, Lurvink M, Barf HA, et al. High prevalence of incontinence among young adults with spina bifida: description, prediction and problem perception. Spinal Cord. 2005 Jun;43(6):331-40.Full text  Abstract

126. Palmer JS, Kaplan WE, Firlit CF. Erectile dysfunction in patients with spina bifida is a treatable condition. J Urol. 2000 Sep;164(3 Pt 2):958-61. Abstract

127. World Allergy Organization. Latex allergy diagnosis and management. Jan 2022 [internet publication].Full text

128. Arata M, Grover S, Dunne K, et al. Pregnancy outcome and complications in women with spina bifida. J Reprod Med. 2000 Sep;45(9):743-8. Abstract

129. Garcia AM, Dicianno BE. The frequency of lymphedema in an adult spina bifida population. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Feb;90(2):89-96. Abstract

130. Valtonen KM, Goksör LA, Jonsson O, et al. Osteoporosis in adults with meningomyelocele: an unrecognized problem at rehabilitation clinics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Mar;87(3):376-82. Abstract

131. Dosa NP, Eckrich M, Katz DA, et al. Incidence, prevalence, and characteristics of fractures in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida. J Spinal Cord Med. 2007;30 Suppl 1:S5-9.Full text  Abstract

132. Stepanczuk BC, Dicianno BE, Webb TS. Young adults with spina bifida may have higher occurrence of prehypertension and hypertension. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Mar;93(3):200-6. Abstract

133. Dagenais LM, Lahay ER, Stueck KA, et al. Effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training and motor skills training on strength of children with meningomyelocele: a systematic review. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2009;29(4):445-63. Abstract

134. Deshpande AV, Sampang R, Smith GH. Study of botulinum toxin A in neurogenic bladder due to spina bifida in children. ANZ J Surg. 2010 Apr;80(4):250-3. Abstract

135. Baka-Ostrowska M, Bolong DT, Persu C, et al. Efficacy and safety of mirabegron in children and adolescents with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: an open-label, phase 3, dose-titration study. Neurourol Urodyn. 2021 Aug;40(6):1490-9.Full text  Abstract

136. Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America. Position papers, white papers, and provision guides. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

137. Flannery AM, Mitchell L. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 1: Introduction and methodology. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14 Suppl 1:3-7.Full text  Abstract

138. Wang Y, Liu G, Canfield MA, et al; National Birth Defects Prevention Network. Racial/ethnic differences in survival of United States children with birth defects: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 2015 Apr;166(4):819-26.Full text  Abstract

139. Moore CA, Li S, Li Z, et al. Elevated rates of severe neural tube defects in a high prevalence area of Northern China. Am J Med Genet. 1997 Dec 12;73(2):113-8. Abstract

140. Botto LD, Moore CA, Khoury MJ, et al. Neural tube defects. N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 11;341(20):1509-19. Abstract

141. Sutton M, Daly LE, Kirke PN. Survival and disability in a cohort of neural tube defect births in Dublin, Ireland. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Oct;82(10):701-9. Abstract

142. Barf HA, Post MW, Verhoef M, et al. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31(11):921-7. Abstract

143. Moore C, Kogan BA, Parekh A. Impact of urinary incontinence on self-concept in children with spina bifida. J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1659-62. Abstract

144. Liptak GS, Kennedy JA, Dosa NP. Youth with spina bifida and transitions: health and social participation in a nationally represented sample. J Pediatr. 2010 Oct;157(4):584-8. Abstract

145. Bowman RM, McLone DG, Grant JA, et al. Spina bifida outcome: a 25-year perspective. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2001 Mar;34(3):114-20. Abstract

146. Davis BE, Daley CM, Shurtleff DB, et al. Long-term survival of individuals with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2005 Jul-Aug;41(4):186-91. Abstract

147. Shin M, Besser LM, Correa A. Prevalence of spina bifida among children and adolescents in metropolitan Atlanta. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Nov;82(11):748-54. Abstract

148. Ouyang L, Grosse SD, Armour BS, et al. Health care expenditures of children and adults with spina bifida in a privately insured U.S. population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007 Jul;79(7):552-8. Abstract

149. Bamer AM, Connell FA, Dudgeon BJ, et al. Frequency of purchase and associated costs of assistive technology for Washington State Medicaid program enrollees with spina bifida by age. Disabil Health J. 2010 Jul;3(3):155-61. Abstract

150. Clayton DB, Brock JW 3rd. The urologist's role in the management of spina bifida: a continuum of care. Urology. 2010 Jul;76(1):32-8. Abstract

151. Piatt JH Jr. Treatment of myelomeningocele: a review of outcomes and continuing neurosurgical considerations among adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Dec;6(6):515-25. Abstract

152. Meeropol E. Latex allergy update: clinical practice and unresolved issues. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1996 Jul;23(4):193-6. Abstract

153. Nieto A, Mazon A, Pamies R, et al. Efficacy of latex avoidance for primary prevention of latex sensitization in children with spina bifida. J Pediatrics. 2002 Mar;140(3):370-2. Abstract

154. Cremer R, Kleine-Diepenbruck U, Hering F, et al. Reduction of latex sensitization in spina bifida patients by a primary prophylaxis programme (five years experience). Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Dec;12 Suppl 1:S19-21. Abstract

155. Mazon A, Nieto A, Linana JJ, et al. Latex sensitization in children with spina bifida: follow up comparative study after two years. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000 Feb;84(2):207-10. Abstract

156. Casteels K, Fieuws S, van Helvoirt M, et al. Metformin therapy to reduce weight gain and visceral adiposity in children and adolescents with neurogenic or myogenic motor deficit. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 Feb;11(1):61-9. Abstract

157. Hertzler DA 2nd, DePowell JJ, Stevenson CB, et al. Tethered cord syndrome: a review of the literature from embryology to adult presentation. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Jul;29(1):E1. Abstract

158. Filippidis AS, Kalani MY, Theodore N, et al. Spinal cord traction, vascular compromise, hypoxia, and metabolic derangements in the pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Jul;29(1):E9. Abstract

159. Shih P, Halpin RJ, Ganju A, et al. Management of recurrent adult tethered cord syndrome. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Jul;29(1):E5. Abstract

160. Dicianno BE, Kurowski BG, Yang JM, et al. Rehabilitation and medical management of the adult with spina bifida. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Dec;87(12):1027-50. Abstract

161. Clayton DB, Brock JW 3rd, Joseph DB. Urologic management of spina bifida. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16(1):88-95. Abstract

162. Ok JH, Kurzrock EA. Objective measurement of quality of life changes after ACE Malone using the FICQOL survey. J Pediatr Urol. 2011 Jun;7(3):389-93.Full text  Abstract

163. Aurora RN, Zak RS, Karippot A, et al. Practice parameters for the respiratory indications for polysomnography in children. Sleep. 2011 Mar 1;34(3):379-88.Full text  Abstract

164. Edelstein K, Cirino PT, Hasher L, et al. Sleep problems, chronotype, and diurnal preferences in children and adults with spina bifida. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:172-175. Abstract

165. Thomson JD, Segal LS. Orthopedic management of spina bifida. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16(1):96-103. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer