Last reviewed:December 2019
Last updated:November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • acute onset of fever
  • headache
  • myalgia
  • arthralgia

Other diagnostic factors

  • retro-orbital pain
  • tachypnoea
  • tachycardia
  • chills
  • altered mental status
  • nausea/vomiting
  • seizures
  • GI bleeding
  • rhinorrhoea
  • cough
  • diarrhoea
  • rash
  • sore throat
  • hemiparesis
  • lethargy, drowsiness, or confusion
  • paraesthesias
  • ataxia/gait abnormalities
  • behavioural abnormalities
  • stupor, somnolence, or coma
  • neck stiffness (nuchal rigidity)
  • jaundice
  • papilloedema

Risk factors

  • living and/or working in or near tropical forests in Central or South America
  • fishing in or near tropical forests in Central or South America
  • age <15 years
  • occupational exposure (laboratory)
  • bioterrorism

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Assistant Professor

Division of Infectious Disease and Global Medicine

University of Florida

Gainesville

FL

Disclosures

AV is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for work on host susceptibility and emerging alphaviruses (2016-2021); however, the funding supports new insights in the field only, it does not directly impact any articles produced. AV is also the author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Infectious Diseases Consultant

Naples Community Hospital

Naples

FL

Disclosures

MGM declares that he has no competing interests.

Research Physician

US Naval Medical Research Unit 6 (NAMRU-6)

Iquitos

Peru

Disclosures

SV declares that he has no competing interests.

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