Hepatitis B

References

Key articles

Terrault NA, Lok ASF, McMahon BJ, et al. Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology. 2018 Apr;67(4):1560-99.Full text  Abstract

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017 Aug;67(2):370-98.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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29. Werle-Lapostolle B, Bowden S, Locarnini S, et al. Persistence of cccDNA during the natural history of chronic hepatitis B and decline during adefovir dipivoxil therapy. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jun;126(7):1750-8. Abstract

30. Sung JJ, Wong ML, Bowden S, et al. Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA can be a predictor of sustained response to therapy. Gastroenterology. 2005 Jun;128(7):1890-7. Abstract

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32. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017 Aug;67(2):370-98.Full text  Abstract

33. Chu CJ, Lee SD. Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, clinical features, viral interactions and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Apr;23(4):512-20.Full text  Abstract

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36. Bellecave P, Gouttenoire J, Gajer M, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus coinfection: a novel model system reveals the absence of direct viral interference. Hepatology. 2009 Jul;50(1):46-55.Full text  Abstract

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38. Goldstein ST, Alter MJ, Williams IT, et al. Incidence and risk factors for acute hepatitis B in the United States, 1982-1998: implications for vaccination programs. J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar 15;185(6):713-9. Abstract

39. Rashti R, Alavian SM, Moradi Y, et al. Global prevalence of HCV and/or HBV coinfections among people who inject drugs and female sex workers who live with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Virol. 2020 Sep;165(9):1947-58.Full text  Abstract

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41. Wasley A, Miller JT, Finelli L. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis: United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007 Mar 16;56(3):1-24. Abstract

42. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection. March 2015 [internet publication].Full text

43. Thio CL. Hepatitis B in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient: epidemiology, natural history, and treatment. Semin Liver Dis. 2003 May;23(2):125-36. Abstract

44. Strader DB. Understudied populations with hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002 Nov;36(5 Suppl 1):S226-36. Abstract

45. Chen G, Wang C, Chen J, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation in hepatitis B and C coinfected patients treated with antiviral agents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2017 Jul;66(1):13-26.Full text  Abstract

46. Mücke MM, Backus LI, Mücke VT, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation during direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Mar;3(3):172-80. Abstract

47. Dodd RY, Notari EP, Stramer SL. Current prevalence and incidence of infectious disease markers and estimated window-period risk in the American Red Cross blood donor population. Transfusion. 2002 Aug;42(8):975-9. Abstract

48. Mahoney FJ, Stewart K, Hu H, et al. Progress toward the elimination of hepatitis B virus transmission among health care workers in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Dec 8-22;157(22):2601-5. Abstract

49. Harpaz R, Von Seidlein L, Averhoff FM, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus to multiple patients from a surgeon without evidence of inadequate infection control. N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 29;334(9):549-54. Abstract

50. Lettau LA, Smith JD, Williams D, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B with resultant restriction of surgical practice. JAMA. 1986 Feb 21;255(7):934-7. Abstract

51. Bond WW, Favero MS, Petersen NJ, et al. Survival of hepatitis B virus after drying and storage for one week. Lancet. 1981 Mar 7;1(8219):550-1. Abstract

52. Davis LG, Weber DJ, Lemon SM. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus. Lancet. 1989 Apr 22;1(8643):889-93. Abstract

53. Falla AM, Hofstraat SHI, Duffell E, et al. Hepatitis B/C in the countries of the EU/EEA: a systematic review of the prevalence among at-risk groups. BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 12;18(1):79.Full text  Abstract

54. Cendoroglo Neto M, Draibe SA, Silva AE, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis and CAPD patients: evidence for environmental transmission. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1995;10(2):240-6. Abstract

55. Malinis M, Boucher HW, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Screening of donor and candidate prior to solid organ transplantation-Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant. 2019 Sep;33(9):e13548.Full text  Abstract

56. Bixler D, Annambhotla P, Montgomery MP, et al. Unexpected hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation - United States, 2014-2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jul 9;70(27):961-6.Full text  Abstract

57. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection. Mar 2015 [internet publication].Full text

58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization schedules: recommended child and adolescent immunization schedule for ages 18 years or younger, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

59. Public Health England. Hepatitis B: the green book, chapter 18. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

60. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization schedules: recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

61. Weng MK, Doshani M, Khan MA, et al. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 19-59 years: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Apr 1;71(13):477-483.Full text  Abstract

62. Liang TJ. Hepatitis B: the virus and disease. Hepatology. 2009 May;49(5 suppl):S13-21.Full text  Abstract

63. McMahon BJ, Alward WL, Hall DB, et al. Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. J Infect Dis. 1985 Apr;151(4):599-603. Abstract

64. Abara WE, Qaseem A, Schillie S, et al; High Value Care Task Force of the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care: best practice advice from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Dec 5;167(11):794-804.Full text  Abstract

65. Lok AS, Liang RH, Chiu EK, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy. Report of a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1991 Jan;100(1):182-8.Full text  Abstract

66. Ostuni P, Botsios C, Punzi L, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation in a chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab and low dose methotrexate. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003 Jul;62(7):686-7.Full text  Abstract

67. Amini A, Varsaneux O, Kelly H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 1;17(suppl 1):698.Full text  Abstract

68. West J, Card TR. Reduced mortality rates following elective percutaneous liver biopsies. Gastroenterology. 2010 Oct;139(4):1230-7.Full text  Abstract

69. Cardoso AC, Carvalho-Filho RJ, Marcellin P. Transient elastography in chronic viral hepatitis: a critical appraisal. Gut. 2011 Jun;60(6):759-64. Abstract

70. Cardoso AC, Carvalho-Filho RJ, Stern C, et al. Direct comparison of diagnostic performance of transient elastography in patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2012 Apr;32(4):612-21. Abstract

71. Castéra L. Transient elastography and other noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepatol. 2009 May;16(5):300-14. Abstract

72. Castéra L, Bernard PH, Le Bail P, et al. Transient elastography and biomarkers for liver fibrosis assessment and follow-up of inactive hepatitis B carriers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Feb;33(4):455-65.Full text  Abstract

73. Fraquelli M, Branchi F. The role of transient elastography in patients with hepatitis B viral disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Jan;43 Suppl 1:S25-31. Abstract

74. Marcellin P, Ziol M, Bedossa P, et al. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis by stiffness measurement in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2009 Feb;29(2):242-7. Abstract

75. Poynard T, Morra R, Halfon P, et al. Meta-analyses of FibroTest diagnostic value in chronic liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007;7:40.Full text  Abstract

76. Yin Z, Zou J, Li Q, et al. Diagnostic value of FIB-4 for liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test. Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 4;8(14):22944-53.Full text  Abstract

77. Arena U, Vizzutti F, Corti G, et al. Acute viral hepatitis increases liver stiffness values measured by transient elastography. Hepatology. 2008 Feb;47(2):380-4.Full text  Abstract

78. Tsochatzis EA, Gurusamy KS, Ntaoula S, et al. Elastography for the diagnosis of severity of fibrosis in chronic liver disease: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. J Hepatol. 2011 Apr;54(4):650-9. Abstract

79. Xiao H, Shi M, Xie Y, et al. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance elastography and Fibroscan for detecting liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Nov 6;12(11):e0186660.Full text  Abstract

80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service inter-agency guidelines for screening donors of blood, plasma, organs, tissues, and semen for evidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1991 Apr 19;40(RR-4):1-17. Abstract

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85. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Hepatitis B virus infection in adolescents and adults: screening. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

86. US Preventive Services Task Force., Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women: US Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. JAMA. 2019 Jul 23;322(4):349-54.Full text  Abstract

87. Hwang JP, Feld JJ, Hammond SP, et al. Hepatitis B virus screening and management for patients with cancer prior to therapy: ASCO provisional clinical opinion update. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Nov 1;38(31):3698-715.Full text  Abstract

88. Mantzoukis K, Rodríguez-Perálvarez M, Buzzetti E, et al. Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis B infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 21;(3):CD011645.Full text  Abstract

89. Papatheodoridis GV, Lampertico P, Manolakopoulos S, et al. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving nucleos(t)ide therapy: a systematic review. J Hepatol. 2010 Aug;53(2):348-56. Abstract

90. Wong GL, Yiu KK, Wong VW, et al. Meta-analysis: reduction in hepatic events following interferon-alfa therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Nov;32(9):1059-68.Full text  Abstract

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94. Lampertico P, Buti M, Fung S, et al. Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide in virologically suppressed patients with chronic hepatitis B: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, multicentre non-inferiority study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 May;5(5):441-53. Abstract

95. Gish RG, Lok AS, Chang TT, et al. Entecavir therapy for up to 96 weeks in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2007 Nov;133(5):1437-44. Abstract

96. Teng YX, Li MJ, Xiang BD, et al. Tenofovir may be superior to entecavir for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality in individuals chronically infected with HBV: a meta-analysis. Gut. 2020 Oct;69(10):1900-2.Full text  Abstract

97. Yip TC, Wong VW, Chan HL, et al. Tenofovir is associated with lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma than entecavir in patients with chronic HBV infection in China. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jan;158(1):215-25.e6.Full text  Abstract

98. Choi J, Kim HJ, Lee J, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients treated with entecavir vs tenofovir for chronic hepatitis B: a Korean nationwide cohort study. JAMA Oncol. 2019 Jan 1;5(1):30-6.Full text  Abstract

99. Gu L, Yao Q, Shen Z, et al. Comparison of tenofovir versus entecavir on reducing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Sep;35(9):1467-76.Full text  Abstract

100. Tseng CH, Hsu YC, Chen TH, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence with tenofovir versus entecavir in chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Dec;5(12):1039-52.Full text  Abstract

101. Carosi G, Rizzetto M, Alberti A, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: update of the recommendations from the 2007 Italian Workshop. Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Apr;43(4):259-65. Abstract

102. Liaw YF, Sung JJ, Chow WC, et al. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 7;351(15):1521-31.Full text  Abstract

103. Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Dimakopoulos K, et al. Outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B on long-term nucleos(t)ide analog therapy starting with lamivudine. Hepatology. 2005 Jul;42(1):121-9.Full text  Abstract

104. Chang TT, Liaw YF, Wu SS, et al. Long-term entecavir therapy results in the reversal of fibrosis/cirrhosis and continued histological improvement in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2010 Sep;52(3):886-93.Full text  Abstract

105. Buster EH, Hansen BE, Buti M, et al; HBV 99-01 Study Group. Peginterferon alpha-2b is safe and effective in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis. Hepatology. 2007 Aug;46(2):388-94.Full text  Abstract

106. Perrillo R, Tamburro C, Regenstein F, et al. Low-dose, titratable interferon alfa in decompensated liver disease caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology. 1995 Sep;109(3):908-16. Abstract

107. Lange CM, Bojunga J, Hofmann WP, et al. Severe lactic acidosis during treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir in patients with impaired liver function. Hepatology. 2009 Dec;50(6):2001-6.Full text  Abstract

108. Altfeld M, Rockstroh JK, Addo M, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B in a long-term anti-HBs-positive patient with AIDS following lamivudine withdrawal. J Hepatol. 1998 Aug;29(2):306-9. Abstract

109. National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America Panel on Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: hepatitis B virus infection. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

110. Jiang XW, Ye JZ, Li YT, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving direct-acting antiviral therapy or interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jul 28;24(28):3181-91.Full text  Abstract

111. Yurdaydın C, Idilman R, Bozkaya H, et al. Natural history and treatment of chronic delta hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2010 Nov;17(11):749-56. Abstract

112. World Health Organization. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus: guidelines on antiviral prophylaxis in pregnancy. Jul 2020 [internet publication].Full text

113. Funk AL, Lu Y, Yoshida K, et al. Efficacy and safety of antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Jan;21(1):70-84.Full text  Abstract

114. Hyun MH, Lee YS, Kim JH, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy and safety of tenofovir to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Jun;45(12):1493-505. Abstract

115. Li W, Jia L, Zhao X, et al. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir in preventing mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus: a meta-analysis based on 6 studies from China and 3 studies from other countries. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018 Aug 2;18(1):121.Full text  Abstract

116. Tavakolpour S, Darvishi M, Mirsafaei HS, et al. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection during pregnancy: a systematic review. Infect Dis (Lond). 2017 Oct 11;50(2):95-106. Abstract

117. Han GR, Cao MK, Zhao W, et al. A prospective and open-label study for the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in pregnancy for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2011 Dec;55(6):1215-21. Abstract

118. Shi Z, Yang Y, Ma L, et al. Lamivudine in late pregnancy to interrupt in utero transmission of hepatitis B virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jul;116(1):147-59. Abstract

119. Su GG, Pan KH, Zhao NF, et al. Efficacy and safety of lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B in pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar 15;10(6):910-2. Abstract

120. van Zonneveld M, van Nunen AB, Niesters HG, et al. Lamivudine treatment during pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2003 Jul;10(4):294-7. Abstract

121. Xu WM, Cui YT, Wang L, et al. Lamivudine in late pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Viral Hepat. 2009 Feb;16(2):94-103. Abstract

122. Shi Z, Yang Y, Wang H, et al. Breastfeeding of newborns by mothers carrying hepatitis B virus: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Sep;165(9):837-46. Abstract

123. Alonso S, Guerra AR, Carreira L, et al. Upcoming pharmacological developments in chronic hepatitis B: can we glimpse a cure on the horizon? BMC Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec 21;17(1):168.Full text  Abstract

124. Bloom K, Maepa MB, Ely A, et al. Gene therapy for chronic HBV-can we eliminate cccDNA? Genes (Basel). 2018 Apr 12;9(4).Full text  Abstract

125. Soriano V, Sherman KE, Barreiro P. Hepatitis delta and HIV infection. AIDS. 2017 Apr 24;31(7):875-84. Abstract

126. Hepatitis B Foundation. Treatment options: drug watch. Sep 2021 [internet publication].Full text

127. Wang Y, Xiong J, Niu M, et al. Statins and the risk of cirrhosis in hepatitis B or C patients: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 27;8(35):59666-76.Full text  Abstract

128. Simon TG, Duberg AS, Aleman S, et al. Lipophilic statins and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and death in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: results from a nationwide Swedish population. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Sep 3;171(5):318-27.Full text  Abstract

129. Vahedian-Azimi A, Shojaie S, Banach M, et al. Statin therapy in chronic viral hepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of nine studies with 195,602 participants. Ann Med. 2021 Dec;53(1):1227-42.Full text  Abstract

130. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B: fact sheet. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

131. Niederau C, Heintges T, Lange S, et al. Long-term follow-up of HBeAg-positive patients treated with interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 30;334(22):1422-7. Abstract

132. Gish RG, Chang TT, Lai CL, et al. Loss of HBsAg antigen during treatment with entecavir or lamivudine in nucleoside-naive HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat. 2010 Jan;17(1):16-22. Abstract

133. Yim HJ, Lok AS. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: what we knew in 1981 and what we know in 2005. Hepatology. 2006 Feb;43(2 Suppl 1):S173-81. Abstract

134. El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2012 May;142(6):1264-73.e1.Full text  Abstract

135. Bosch FX, Ribes J, Cleries R, et al. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis. 2005 May;9(2):191-211, v. Abstract

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