The exact prevalence of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) in the general population is unknown. Most patients remain asymptomatic, and the condition can be an incidental finding on radiological investigations for other reasons. One study estimated the prevalence to be 5/100,000 population. In patients examined with intravenous urography (IVU), the prevalence was estimated to be about 0.5% to 1%. Other studies have estimated the prevalence to be about 3% to 5% in patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and 20% to 25% in patients who are calcium stone formers.
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