In response to an increase in the number of mumps outbreaks in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices now recommends that anyone aged ≥12 months who previously received one or two doses of mumps-containing vaccine and is considered to be at increased risk during a mumps outbreak should receive a third dose of MMR or MMRV vaccine to improve protection.
People are considered to be at increased risk during an outbreak if they are more likely to have prolonged or intense exposure to droplets or saliva from a person infected with mumps, for example through close contact or sharing of drinks or utensils (e.g., through living on a university campus or as part of any close-knit community). After a review of recent evidence, the CDC concluded that the routine recommendation of two doses of MMR vaccine appears to be sufficient for mumps control in the general population but insufficient for preventing mumps outbreaks in close-contact settings, even where coverage with two vaccine doses is high. In the event of a mumps outbreak, public health authorities will be responsible for defining at-risk target groups for a third vaccine dose.See Prevention
Hallmark of infection is swelling and inflammation of one or both of the parotid glands (parotitis).
More serious complications of mumps, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and orchitis, can occur in the absence of parotitis, potentially delaying the accurate diagnosis of the disease.
Diagnosis can usually be made based on the characteristic clinical features of parotitis and prodrome alone. Laboratory diagnosis is based on serological or salivary confirmation, detection of viral nucleic acid, or isolation of the virus from body fluids.
Treatment is symptomatic, and the disease can be prevented largely by routine vaccination.
The mumps vaccine is used almost universally in developed countries, as part of MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine. Sporadic outbreaks have occurred in highly vaccinated populations, leading to suggestions that the vaccine’s efficacy may not be as high as originally thought and that vaccination policy should be reviewed, perhaps to include 3 doses.
Mumps is an acute systemic infectious disease caused by an RNA paramyxovirus.  It is spread by respiratory droplets, and, before the advent of the mumps vaccine, it affected school-aged children commonly.  Classically, mumps causes swelling of the parotid glands; the involvement of other salivary glands, meninges, gonads, and pancreas is also common. 
Consultant in Community Child Health
Great Ormond Street Hospital
DE declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Children's Health
UCL Institute of Child Health
HB declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr David Elliman and Professor Helen Bedford would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Kristin Furfari, a previous contributor to this monograph. KF declares that she has no competing interests.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Dermatology
RU declares that he has no competing interests.
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Vermont College of Medicine
CDH declares that he has no competing interests.
National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance
Department Of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
The Children’s Hospital
New South Wales
KM declares that she has no competing interests.
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