Last reviewed: 25 Oct 2020
Last updated: 12 Nov 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • weakness/lethargy
  • vomiting
  • myalgia
  • non-productive cough
  • dyspnoea
  • altered mental status/reduced consciousness
  • meningism
  • seizures
  • focal neurological signs
  • tachycardia
  • hypertension

Risk factors

  • history of residence in or travel to endemic area
  • contact with known infected person
  • consumption of contaminated date palm products in endemic areas
  • contact with horses in endemic areas
  • contact with pigs in endemic areas
  • contact with bats or their secretions in endemic areas
  • diabetes
  • age >40 years
  • bioterrorism

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serology
  • reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
  • FBC
  • LFTs
  • serum urea and electrolytes
  • clotting profiles
  • CXR
  • malaria thick and thin blood films
  • blood/urine cultures
  • cerebrospinal fluid analysis
  • cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction tests for other viral encephalitides
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • MRI brain
  • EEG
  • other serological assays
  • brain biopsy/autopsy
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Speciality Registrar in Infectious Diseases

Regional Infectious Diseases Unit

Manchester

UK

Disclosures

CC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine

Regional Infectious Diseases Unit

Manchester

UK

Disclosures

AU declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Clinical lecturer

University College London

London

UK

Disclosures

CH declares that she has no competing interests.

Adjunct

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health

Australian National University

Canberra

Australia

Disclosures

ARF declares that she has no competing interests.

Science Programme Manager

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Karonga Prevention Study

Chilumba

Malawi

Disclosures

SG declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer