Outbreaks have occurred in Asia, Africa, and Southeast Europe, with an outbreak in Spain in 2016.
Appropriate personal protective equipment should be used and the patient isolated.
Presents as a sudden-onset, severe illness with initial influenza-like symptoms, red eyes, and petechiae leading to signs of haemorrhage around day 4.
Supportive therapy is the standard of care, although some people may benefit from treatment with ribavirin.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal viral infection caused by the CCHF virus which has been reported in parts of Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East.   The virus belongs to the genus Nairovirus in the Bunyaviridae family and causes severe diseases in humans, with a reported mortality rate of 3% to 30%.   The geographical range of CCHF virus is the largest among tickborne viruses affecting humans. After dengue viruses, it is the most widespread of medically important arboviruses.  Humans are infected through tick bites, through contact with a person in the acute phase of CCHF infection, or from viraemic livestock (through blood or tissue contact).   
Infectious Diseases and Public Health
Koç University School of Medicine
lnfectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department
Turkish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
OE is the author of several references cited in this monograph.
Adult and Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellow
VR declares that she has no competing interests.
Wellcome Trust/MoD Research Fellow
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
TF receives Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever research funding from the Wellcome Trust and UK Surgeon General. He is a member of the WHO secretariat for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever guideline development.
Professor of Infectious Diseases
Faculty of Medicine
AE declares that she has no competing interests.
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