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WHAT IS EBM?
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- Sackett DL, Rosenberg W, Gray JA, et al. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996;312:71–72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555924
- Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992;268;2420–2425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1404801
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CLINICAL QUESTION, SEARCH AND STUDY SELECTION
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CRITICAL APPRAISAL SKILLS
- Sedgwick P. Bias in experimental study designs: randomised controlled trials with parallel groups. BMJ 2015;351. https://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3869
- Windish D. Searching for the right evidence: how to answer your clinical questions using the 6S hierarchy. Evidence-Based Medicine 2013;18:93-97. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23048189
- Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne JAC (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org.
- Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, et al. What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ 2008;336:995–998. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18456631
- Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries, and systems: the “5S” evolution of information services for evidence-based healthcare decisions. Evid Based Med 2006;11:162–164. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17213159
- Barton S. Which clinical studies provide the best evidence? BMJ 2000;321(7256):255–256. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1118259/
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Assessing the methodological quality of published papers. BMJ 1997;315:305–308. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9274555
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- Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Critical Appraisal tools. Available from https://www.cebm.net/2014/06/critical-appraisal/ (last accessed 8 February 2019)
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. CASP checklists. Available from https://www.casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists (last accessed 8 February 2019)
- Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. PRISMA Statement. Available from https://www.prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/Default.aspx (last accessed 8 February 2019)
- Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Critical Appraisal: Notes and checklists. Available from https://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/checklists.html
- Sedgwick P. What is significance? BMJ 2015;350:h3475 https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h3475
- Sedgwick P. What are the risks? BMJ 2015;350:h2931 https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2931
- Sedgwick P. Clinical significance versus statistical significance. BMJ 2014;348:g2130 https://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g2130
- Understanding statistical terms: 5. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:95–96. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654420
- Understanding statistical terms: 4. Diagnostic tests. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:71–72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494344
- Understanding statistical terms: 3. Topics to do with study design. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:59–60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19423679
- Understanding statistical terms: 2. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:35–36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261839
- Understanding statistical terms: 1. Drug Ther Bull 2009;47:22–24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19193703
- Hatala R, Keitz S, Wyer P, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 4. Assessing heterogeneity of primary studies in systematic reviews and whether to combine their results. CMAJ 2005;172:661–665. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15738493
- Barratt A, WYer PC, Hatala R, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. Relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. CMAJ 2004;171:353–358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313996
- Montori VM, Kleinbart J, Newman TB, et al. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 2. Measures of precision (confidence intervals). CMAJ 2004;171:611–615. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15367466
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician II: significant relationships and their pitfalls. BMJ 1997;315:422–425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9277611
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician I: different types of data need different statistical tests. BMJ 1997;315:364–366. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/927046
- BMJ Learning Understanding statistics 1: presenting data from clinical trials An interactive module which outlines the basics of different ways of presenting statistical data from a clinical trial.
- BMJ Learning Understanding statistics 2: is there a significant difference? An interactive module which uses practical examples to work through to help you learn how to interpret the results of a trial, including what statistical significance means.
- Perera R, Heneghan C. Interpreting meta-analysis in systematic reviews. Evid Based Med 2008;13:67–69. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515615
- Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). BMJ 1997;315:672–675. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310574
- GRADE Series. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. https://www.jclinepi.com/content/jce-GRADE-Series
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- McCartney M, Treadwell J, Maskrey N, et al. Making evidence based medicine work for individual patients. BMJ 2016; 353. https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i2452
- Agoritsas T, Heen AF, Brandt L, et al. Decision aids that really promote shared decision making: the pace quickens. BMJ 2015;350. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25670178
- Stiggelbout AM, Van der Weijden T, De Wit MPT, et al. Shared decision making: really putting patients at the centre of healthcare. BMJ 2012;344 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286508
- Kitson A, Straus SE. The knowledge-to-action cycle: identifying the gaps. CMAJ 2010;182:E73–E77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948812
- Whitely R. Cultural competence, evidence-based medicine, and evidence-based practices. Psychiatr Serv 2007;58:1588–1590. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048561
- Hasnain-Wynia R. Is evidence-based medicine patient-centered and is patient-centered care evidence-based? Health Serv Res 2006;41:1–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16479681
- Guyatt G, Cook D, Haynes B. Evidence based medicine has come a long way. BMJ 2004;329;990–991. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514320
- Kotaska A. Inappropriate use of randomised trials to evaluate complex phenomena: case study of vaginal breech delivery. BMJ 2004;329:1039–1042. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514356
- Lockwood S. “Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine? BMJ 2004;329;1033–1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514354
- Slowther A, Ford S, Schofield T. Ethics of evidence based medicine in the primary care setting. J Med Ethics 2004;30:151–155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082808
- White B. Making evidence-based medicine doable in everyday practice. Fam Pract Manag 2004;11:51–58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15011482
- Schattner A, Fletcher RH. Research evidence and the individual patient. QJM 2003;96:1–5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509644
- Rosenberg W, Donald A. Evidence based medicine: an approach to clinical problem-solving. BMJ 1995;310:1122–1126. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7742682