Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • direct blow to the head or deceleration of the head from an impulsive force
  • previous brain trauma or alcohol abuse

Other diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • feeling foggy/slow
  • dizziness/balance problems
  • memory difficulties
  • vomiting/nausea
  • normal physical neurologic exam
  • abnormalities on neuropsychological testing

Risk factors

  • head injury
  • previous brain trauma
  • substance abuse

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • MRI head
  • functional MRI (fMRI)
Full details

Emerging tests

  • PET, single-photon emission CT (SPECT) of head
  • alternative imaging techniques
  • anatomic brain imaging techniques
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Luke C. Henry

Instructor of Orthopaedic Surgery

Division of Sports Medicine

University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre for Sports Medicine Concussion Program

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

University of Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

LCH declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Clinical Professor

Director

General Rehabilitation Unit

UPMC Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

MT declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Luke C. Henry and Dr Maria Twichell would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeffrey Bazarian and Dr Maryse Lassonde, previous contributors to this monograph. JB has been reimbursed by Roche, the manufacturer of an automated assay for serum S-100B, to attend a conference, and has been reimbursed by Banyan Biomarkers and Neuren Pharmaceuticals to help develop their research protocols. JB is also an author of a reference cited in this monograph. ML is an author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor and Consultant

Department of Neurosurgery

Ulleval University Hospital

Oslo

Norway

Disclosures

EH declares that he has no competing interests.

Director of Athletic Medicine

Princeton University

Princeton

NJ

Disclosures

MP is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

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