Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: December  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • residence in or emigration from an endemic area
  • at-risk demographic
  • subtarsal (beneath the eyelid) conjunctival inflammation
  • subtarsal follicles
  • Herbert pits (small pits around the margin of the cornea)
  • subtarsal conjunctival scarring
  • trichiasis (the contact of 1 or more lashes on any part of the globe)
  • corneal opacification

Other diagnostic factors

  • asymptomatic
  • ocular and nasal discharge
  • red eye
  • painful watery eye
  • limbal (at the border of the cornea and sclera) follicles
  • pannus (vessels growing over the clear cornea)

Risk factors

  • children (active infection)
  • poor facial hygiene
  • female gender
  • poverty
  • poor community hygiene
  • residence in or emigration from an endemic area

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • PCR (conjunctival swab)
Full details

Emerging tests

  • point-of-care conjunctival swab dipstick test
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Help Me See Chief Medical Officer

Director of International Relations

IMO (Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology)

Santiago de Queretaro

Mexico

Disclosures

VCL declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Trachoma Control Program

The Carter Center

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

KC declares that she has no competing interests.

Director

International Trachoma Initiative

Decatur

GA

Disclosures

PE declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Van Charles Lansingh, Ms Kelly Callahan, and Dr Paul Emerson wish to gratefully acknowledge Dr Heathcote R. Wright and Dr Hugh R. Taylor, previous contributors to this topic. HRW and HRT are authors of a number of references cited in the topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Lecturer

International Centre for Eye Health

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

London

UK

Disclosures

MB declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Miller School of Medicine

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

University of Miami

Miami

FL

Disclosures

VP declares that he has no competing interests.

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