Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • exposure to fungal spores
  • risk factors that impair host defenses
  • fever
  • headache
  • dyspnea
  • dry or nonproductive cough
  • pleuritic chest pain
  • anorexia
  • productive cough

Other diagnostic factors

  • abdominal pain
  • fatigue
  • malaise
  • arthralgias
  • weight loss
  • hepatosplenomegaly
  • scattered crackles on chest auscultation
  • bronchial breathing on chest auscultation
  • distant breath sounds on chest auscultation
  • hemoptysis
  • meningitis-like symptoms
  • skin lesions
  • GI symptoms
  • sepsis-like syndrome

Risk factors

  • exposure to fungus
  • emphysema
  • HIV infection
  • treatment with TNF-alpha antagonists
  • treatment with corticosteroids
  • neutropenia
  • stem cell and solid organ transplant
  • graft-versus-host disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • chest x-ray
  • culture of pulmonary secretions
  • antigen testing
  • immunodiffusion precipitin test
  • complement fixation assay
  • CT scan of chest
  • CBC
  • LFTs
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant

Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Mediclinic City Hospital

Dubai

United Arab Emirates

Disclosures

ZAM has received speakers' honoraria from Merck-MSD.

Associate Professor

Pediatric Infectious Diseases

The Children's Hospital at Montefiore

New York

NY

Disclosures

DLG declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Family Medicine

Mayo Clinic

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

PR declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases

Department of Internal Medicine

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Springfield

IL

Disclosures

JK declares that he has no competing interests.

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