Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Dyslexia
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Absence epilepsy
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder

Uncommon

  • Dyscalculia
  • Specific language disorder
  • Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)
  • Developmental coordination disorder/dyspraxia
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Angelman syndrome
  • William syndrome
  • Rett syndrome
  • DiGeorge syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome)
  • Turner syndrome
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis
  • Congenital rubella
  • Teratogenic drugs
  • Extreme preterm birth
  • Perinatal hypoxia
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain tumor
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Hypoxia/asphyxia
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Psychosocial deprivation
  • Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)
  • Epileptic encephalopathies
  • 15q11 duplication syndromes
  • 16p11.2 deletion syndrome

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Neurology

Department of Neurology

UCSF Medical Center and UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital

San Francisco

CA

Disclosures

KAS declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Kevin A. Shapiro would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Parr, the previous contributor to this monograph. JP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability

Evelina Children's Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Research Director

Starlight Pediatrics

University of Rochester Medical Center

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

SHJ declares that she has no competing interests.

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