Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • COPD
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Asthma
  • Pneumonia (bacterial, viral, fungal, tuberculous)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Stable angina
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Noninfective pneumonitis (eosinophilic, radiation, aspiration, hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Pulmonary embolism (thrombotic, air, amniotic fluid, tumor)
  • Pleural effusion and pleural tumors
  • Anemia
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Ascites
  • Shock
  • Thyroid disease
  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • Normal aging, deconditioning, and obesity

Uncommon

  • Aortic dissection
  • Pulmonary tumors
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Pulmonary contusion
  • Laryngitis
  • Epiglottitis
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Angioedema
  • Foreign body aspiration
  • Tracheobronchial tumors (benign or malignant)
  • Retrosternal goiter
  • Vocal cord dysfunction
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Hepatopulmonary syndrome
  • Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations
  • Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
  • Mesothelioma
  • Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum
  • Pleuritis
  • Hemothorax
  • Arrhythmias
  • Acquired valvular heart disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Cardiac drugs
  • Myocardial disease (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis)
  • Pericardial disease
  • Superior vena cava syndrome
  • Methemoglobinemia and carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Tetanus
  • Botulism
  • Phrenic nerve paralysis
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Polio and other acute viral anterior horn infections
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Respiratory muscle deficiency
  • Paraneoplastic myasthenic syndrome
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Kyphoscoliosis and pectus excavatum
  • Diphtheria

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Tomasz J. Kuzniar

Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine

University of Chicago

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

NorthShore University HealthSystem

Evanston

IL

Disclosures

TJK declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Tomasz J. Kuzniar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Kamilla Kasibowska-Kuzniar and Dr Kaiser G. Lim, previous contributors to this monograph. KGL declares that he has no competing interests, and KKK declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Senior Lecturer and Consultant Physician

North Bristol Lung Centre

Southmead Hospital

Bristol

UK

Disclosures

NM declares that he has no competing interests.

MRC Training Fellow and Specialist Registrar, Respiratory Medicine

Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine

Churchill Hospital

Oxford

UK

Disclosures

NR declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine

Ohio State University Medical Center

Columbus

OH

Disclosures

JPP declares that he has no competing interests.

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