Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • age >40 years
  • chronic sun exposure
  • smoking
  • lines on face
  • horizontal neck folds
  • lines on dorsum of hands and wrists
  • dynamic lines
  • gravitational lines
  • deep wrinkles
  • fine wrinkles

Other diagnostic factors

  • skin laxity
  • dyschromia
  • dermoelastosis
  • erythema
  • telangiectasia
  • textural changes
  • actinic keratoses

Risk factors

  • genetic susceptibility
  • age >40 years
  • fair skin type
  • hyperdynamic muscular activity
  • chronic sun exposure
  • smoking
  • pollution
  • low socioeconomic class
  • low BMI

Diagnostic investigations

Emerging tests

  • profilometer
  • in vivo confocal microscopy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Dimitrios Dionyssiou

Professor in Plastic Surgery

Department of Plastic Surgery

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

DD declares that he has no competing interests.

Efterpi Demiri

Professor in Plastic Surgery

Department of Plastic Surgery

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

ED declares that she has no competing interests.

Elisavet Lazaridou

Associate Professor

First Department of Dermatology

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

EL declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Clinical Professor of Dermatology and Otolaryngology

St. Louis University

St. Louis

Director

Laser and Dermatologic Surgery Center

Chesterfield

MO

Disclosures

GH has been reimbursed by Allergan, Dermik, and Colbar Life Sciences to attend educational symposia and has also been paid to teach other physicians. GH is a consultant for Ulthera and has received equipment for research from Syneron. GH is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Consultant Plastic Surgeon

Lister Hospital

Stevenage

UK

Disclosures

SP declares that he has no competing interests.

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