Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • hx of knee trauma
  • hx of knee arthritis, instability, or malalignment
  • knee swelling
  • sensation of knee instability or buckling/catching
  • knee pain
  • tenderness at joint line and joint line crepitation
  • positive McMurray test
  • positive Apley test
  • positive hyperextension test

Other diagnostic factors

  • popliteal (Baker) cyst in chronic cases
  • limited range of motion

Risk factors

  • acute trauma (twisting injury)
  • knee joint arthritis
  • knee instability
  • hx of anterior cruciate ligament injury
  • malalignment of the knee joint
  • rough or uneven playing surface
  • poor ground/weather conditions
  • construction work and manual labor jobs
  • discoid meniscus

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • MRI scan
  • plain film radiographs: AP x-ray, lateral knee x-ray, 45° PA flexion, and skyline views
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Orthopedic Surgeon

Department of Sports Orthopedics

Toshiba Hospital Tokyo

Tokyo

Japan

Disclosures

HT declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Hideki Takeda would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Lars Engebretsen and Dr Kevin R. Stone, previous contributors to this monograph. LE declares that he has no competing interests. KRS is an author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Co-Director of Orthopedic Sports and Shoulder Service

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Naval Medical Center San Diego

San Diego

CA

Disclosures

DS declares that he has no competing interests.

Orthopedic Surgeon

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Seoul Veterans Hospital

Seoul

South Korea

Disclosures

JRY declares that she has no competing interests.

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