Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: January  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • cirrhosis
  • more severe liver disease
  • alcohol abuse
  • hepatitis B or C infection
  • HIV coinfection
  • ascites
  • spider angioma
  • caput medusa
  • jaundice
  • encephalopathy
  • hematemesis
  • melena
  • hematochezia

Risk factors

  • portal HTN
  • large varices
  • red wale marks
  • Child-Pugh class
  • ascites

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • coagulation profile (INR/prothrombin time)
  • serum LFTs
  • BUN and creatinine
  • blood typing/cross-matching
  • hepatitis B serology
  • hepatitis C serology
  • esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
Full details

Emerging tests

  • capsule endoscopy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Chief of Gastroenterology

Department of Gastroenterology

Ospedale V. Cervello

Palermo

Italy

Disclosures

GDA declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Gastroenterologist

Department of Gastroenterology

Ospedale V. Cervello

Palermo

Italy

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Gennaro D'Amico and Dr Giuseppe Malizia would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Vikram Boolchand and Dr Thomas Boyer, the previous contributors to this monograph. VB and TB declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Instructor in Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Director of Clinical Research

The Celiac Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

Instructor in Medicine

Liver Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

GLB declares that he has no competing interests.

Director of Internal Medicine

Policlinico of Internal Medicine

University of Milan

Milan

Italy

Disclosures

FS declares that he has no competing interests.

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